Sunday, March 31, 2019

To Be or Not To Be? -- March 31, 2019

San Francisco Call, 03-November-1912
An ad for Sutro Baths from the 03-November-1897 San Francisco Call. My grandfather took to Sutro Baths a few times before it burned in 1966. I remember playing in the back yard and watching ashes blow overhead.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Air, Sea and Land -- March 29, 2019
The beautiful cover of the July, 1910 Motor Magazine features a racing car, an airplane and a speedboad.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Babe Ruth Nets Four Home Runs -- March 27, 2019

Rock Island Argus, 19-April-1919
The Boston Red Sox played an exhibition game against Babe Ruth's first professional team, the Baltimore Orioles of the International League.  The Babe played left field and hit four home runs and walked twice as the Red Sox won 12-3.  In the 1919 season, Babe appeared in only 17  games as a pitcher.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Ranking Roger, RIP -- March 26, 2019
I was sad to hear of the death of Ranking Roger, who sang with The English Beat.  He was only 56.  I loved the ska revival and the Two-Tone movement when we began to hear about it in the US.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Lawrence Ferlinghetti 100 - March 24, 2019

Happy 100th birthday to San Francisco icon Lawrence Ferlinghetti, the poet and publisher who founded City Lights Books.

In 2017, the San Francisco Arts Commission ( set up a series of posters by artist Deborah Aschheim. "The Zeitgeist" was part of a larger series for the 50th anniversary of the Summer of Love. The posters in The Zeitgeist represented people involved in the Spring Mobilization against the War in Vietnam on 15-April-1967.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

The Magic Palanquin -- March 23, 2019

From The Book of Magic: Being a Simple Description of Some Good Tricks and How to Do Them, with Patter by Archie Frederick Collins, 1916.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

New York via Mainliner -- March 21, 2019
United Air Lines invited visitors to travel to New York via Mainliner. "Mainliner" was a term for an airplane flying one of an airline's main routes.

Some people feel that images of Lady Liberty are insulting to our so-called president.

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

Andre Williams and Dick Dale, RIP

I was sad to learn that R&B singer Andre Williams and surf guitar pioneer Dick Dale have died.

Andre Williams made some funny records.

Dick Dale was called the King of the Surf Guitar. He had a wide influence on surf music.

Tuesday, March 19, 2019

The Short Line to Our Paris -- March 19, 2019

Omaha Bee, 30-January-1917
World War One made it impossible for Americans to travel to Europe for holidays, so the railroads encouraged Americans to visit America.  The Illinois Central offered its Panama Limited, an overnight trip from Chicago to New Orleans.  "If you have been there before, you need no urging to go."

Monday, March 18, 2019

Transit Driver Appreciation Day, 2019 -- March 18, 2019
I am grateful to the men and women who bravely face San Francisco traffic and San Francisco people every day. Thank you all.

I am grateful to transit drivers/motormen/gripmen/engineers/conductors and all the people who keep the vehicles clean and running and the wires and tracks in good shape all over the world. Thank you all.

Answers Every Irishman Should Know -- March 18, 2019

Washington Herald, 17-March-1919
Here are the answers to yesterday's Saint Patrick's Day quiz.  I disagree with their answer to the last question.  

Answers Every Irishman Should Know

1. Erin.
2. Cork.
3. Emnmet.
4. Dublin Castle.
5. Trinity.
6. For ourselves (self-reliance).
7. Legs (feet).
8. Ulster, Munster, Leinster, Connaught.
9. Holland.
10. Belfast.
11. Redmond.
12. Lord lieutenant.
13. Gratton.
14. O'Connell.
15. De Valera.
16. Hyde, MacNeil.
17. Davitt.
18. Kilarney.
19 Dublin Castle.
20. Loughneigh.
21. St. Patrick.
22. Scotch.

Sunday, March 17, 2019

Happy Saint Patrick's Day, 2018 -- March 17, 2019

Washington Herald, 17-March-1919
Happy Saint Patrick's Day, everyone.

100 years ago, the Washington Herald published a Saint Patrick's Day quiz.  If anyone would like to try it, I will publish the results tomorrow.  I think I got only 5 of 22 correct.  I disagree with their answer to the last question.  

How Accurate Is Your Information as to Ireland and Irish Notables?? Sons of Erin Know Answers; Do You?

"Sure, an' there Is no better Irishman than me!"

Irishmen of Washington, all of you who proudly admit being Irish to the last drop of your word-renowned fighting blood, how much do you know about that blessed land of Erin of which you are so proud?

Do you know who De Valera is? Gratton? Daniel O'Connell? Do you know what great Irish patriot was hanged by the English In 1803? Can you tell in what county of Ireland Is located the Blarney Stone and. above all things, do you know of what nationality was St. Patrick, to whom you pay tribute to-day?

It is ventured that one Irishman in ever so many can answer the list of twenty-two questions printed on this page, and yet each has to do with men and things which have figured prominently in the history of the Emerald Isle.

The Irishmen Knew.

Several well-known Irish scholars were asked these questions and they experienced little difficulty In answering them. Dr. Joseph Dunn, at Catholic University, rattled off the whole list without a break, and was a bit embarrassed that one should think he couldn't. James McCormick, prominent In Irish fraternal circles, who not only is familiar with Irish history but also knows a thing or two about the Gaelic language, did the same.

Patrick T. Moran, who will preside tonight at the mass meeting at Liberty Hut. in celebration of St. Patrick, doesn't claim to be the first-rate scholar, but he struck a fairly good average in answering the questions. He missed a couple of 'em.

It la safe to say that a vast majority of Irishmen cannot call off the answers. If you don't believe It, try 'em on your Irish friends.

A. W. McGowan, a policeman of the First precinct, who makes the claim that no better Irishman ever happened than he. made an attempt to stand up before the quiz, but "got stuck" on the first one and gave it up when he heard a few more.
A Horse on Rooney.

Pat Rooney. the noted Irish comedian, who appeared at Keith's last week, took a crack at It, too. Pat knew that one had to be held by the heels to kiss the Blarney Stone, and that St. Patrick Is alleged to have chased all the snakes out of Ireland. His son, also Pat, knew that much, he said.

Rooney claimed he knew very nearly everything about an Irishman one would care to know, but the history of Ireland, he said, was a "horse of another color."

"Because I don't know the history of Ireland, that isn't to say that I'm not a good Irishman." explained Pat. "Do you know all the words of the 'Star Spangled Banner'? Nope? But that doesn't prove that you're not a flrst-rate American, does it? The same applies to those questions you asked me."

St. Patrick's Day Exercise.

You've heard of memory tests, and things like that? Of course, they're What they give a fellow when he tries to get into the Civil Service or the army. Those army tests were concocted by Max Watson, author of the Irish tests given below. How many can you answer? Try 'em on your Irish friends? Then turn over to the editorial page and see the right answers.

Are you ready for the questions?

All right, here they are:

1. What Is the Gaelic name for Ireland?

2. In what county of Ireland is the Blarney Stone located?

5. What prominent Irish patriot was hanged by the English on September 30. 1803.

4. What Is the name of the building In which the seat of the British government in Ireland is located?

6. What is the name of the college in Dublin established by Queen Elizabeth?

?. What is the meaning of Sinn Fein?

7. In what way does a person have to be held to kiss the Blarney Stone?

8. What are the four provinces of Ireland?

9. In what country was William of Orange born?

10. What city in Ireland Is the stronghold of the Orangemen?

11. Who was the leader of the Irish parliamentary party who died In 1918?

12. What Is the title of the British officer who is the chief executive of Ireland?

Everybody Knows These.

11 Who was the statesman associated with Henry Flood, instrumental in securing the independence of the Irish Parliament?

14. What is the name of the great Irish emancipator who had the religious tests abolished In the British Parliament?

15. Who is the provisional president of the present Irish republic?

16. Who are the two great leaders of the Irish language movement?

17. Who was the man who broke down the Irish landlord system?

18. What part of Ireland is famous for its lakes?

19. What place in Ireland is called the Devil's Acre by the Irish?

20. What is the name of the largest lake in Ireland?

21. According to Irish tradition, who drove the reptiles from Ireland?

22. What was the nationality of St. Patrick?

Nat King Cole -- March 17, 2019
Nat King Cole was born 100 years ago today, on 17-March-1919.  I was watching television one day in 1965 and an announcement came on saying that Nat King Cole had died.  I went to the kitchen and told my mother that Old King Cole had died.

His music was not popular when I was growing up.  I didn't like arrangements with lots of strings.  Later I heard some of  his early stuff with the King Cole Trio and discovered that he was good.

Friday, March 15, 2019

The Junk Man Rag -- March 15, 2019
Luckyth Roberts, usually called Luckey Roberts, was a ragtime and stride pianist who composed many numbers. He served in the Harlem Hellfighters and played in the regimental band under James Reese Europe.

Maurice and Florence Walton were dancers in vaudeville.

Thursday, March 14, 2019

Capital Punishment Stopped -- March 14, 2019

The Annals of San Francisco by Frank Soulé, John H. Gihon, James Nisbet. 1855.
Governor Gavin Newsom has blocked implementation of the death penalty in California.  It discriminates against people of color, poor people and mentally ill people.  If it is applied by mistake, it cannot be reversed.  I agree with him, although there are some people who probably deserve their sentences.

Samuel Whittaker and Robert McKenzie were hanged by San Francisco's 1851 Committee of Vigilance for "burglary, robbery and arson."  On 24-August-1851, members of the committee took the men from their cells in the county jail on Broadway and hanged them outside the windows of the committee's rooms on Battery Street.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Comic Book --- Police Comics -- March 13, 2019
Plastic Man, created by Jack Cole and The Spirit, created by Will Eisner were distinctive characters who appeared in Police Comics, published by Quality Comics.  Jack Cole drew the strip with humor and took advantage of Plastic Man's ability to stretch and twist into any shape.  I remember when DC brought the character back in the 1960s.

The Spirit was created by the Eisner-Iger Studio to appear in a comic book that was syndicated to Sunday newspapers.  Later he appeared in Police Comics.  I bought at least one issue of the Warren reprints.  I read it and reread it until the cover came loose.

Monday, March 11, 2019

Pulp -- Phantom Detective -- March 11, 2019
The Phantom Detective was an early recurring pulp character. Richard Curtis Van Loan, a wealthy playboy, served as a masked detective. He lasted from 1933 to 1953.

Saturday, March 9, 2019

DVD: Kidnapped -- March 9, 2019

Moving Picture World, 29-September-1917
Moving Picture World, 29-September-1917
Fritzi, the proprietor of the wonderful blog Movies Silently, is now a DVD producer.  For her first production, she had a brilliant idea which requires a little bit of explanation.

Moving Picture World, 03-March-1917
On 11-February-1917, inventor Thomas Edison turned 70 years old.  He received a testimonial banquet from his employees in West Orange, New Jersey.  The article's history is not entirely accurate.  I highlighted some of the text of the article.  

"Trade Honors Edison, Its Creator, on Natal Day

"First Real 'Feature' Made and Modern Conquest Subject
"Shown at Testimonial Banquet to 'Father of Pictures'

"A SHOWING of the first great 'feature' motion picture ever produced was one of the striking features of a testimonial banquet that was tendered to Thomas A. Edison, in honor of his seventieth birthday, at Orange, N. J., by the employees of the Edison Affiliated Industries. The banquet to (the - JT) famous inventor, who devised the first motion picture camera as well as the first machine designed to project moving pictures on a screen, was given by the various divisions of the vast Edison industries, for the purpose of emphasizing the high regard in which Mr. Edison is held by those who are engaged in the production of the various devices that owe their existence to his rare genius and unremitting toil. The Edison studios of Bedford Park, N. Y., were strongly represented at the banquet and contributed largely to the entertainment that followed the dinner.

"The affair was of decided interest to the motion picture world not only because of the showing of the historic first 'feature' production, but because it marked the first public showing of Edison Conquest Pictures, new productions that have been made on lines laid down by Mr. Edison, and that represent his conception of ideal motion pictures. The contrast between the first actual photoplay ever produced and the new productions of the Edison studios was highly impressive.

"The first feature production that ever was made, the picture that was shown last night, was 'The Great Train Robbery,' a photoplay that will be remembered by many of the pioneers in the film industry, and the forerunner of all Western thrillers. It was released November 30, 1903, and it marked a decided advance in the evolution of the silent drama. It was the first story with a definite plot to be produced as well as the first production to reach the length of one-reel. Previous to that time, only short subjects, ranging in length from twenty-five to three hundred feet, had been made. 'The Great Train Robbery' was approximately seven hundred and fifty feet in length, a stupendous production for that era.

"The popularity of the production is indicated by the fact that estimates show that it made approximately $400,000 for the Edison Company, a record that few productions have approached.

"Four of the new Edison Conquest pictures, including a production of Robert Louis Stevenson's 'Kidnapped,' were included in the program. Motion picture authorities present were authority for statements that the new pictures are going to make a big advance in motion picture production.

"Among the figures of prominence in the film world who were present were. W. W. Hodkinson, who will direct the distribution of Conquest Pictures; George Kleine, of the Kleine-Edison-Selig-Essanay, through which a series of five-reel Edison master-pictures are being released, and L. W. McChesney, manager of the Thomas A. Edison,. Inc., studios.

"The divisions that united in giving the testimonial banquet to Mr. Edison were: The Motion Picture Division, of Bedford Park; the Musical Phonograph Division, the Storage Battery Division, the Dictating Machine Division, of Orange; the Primary Battery Division, of Bloomfield, N. J., and the Chemical Manufacturing Division, of Silver Lake, N. J."

Motion Picture News, 24-March-1917
Thomas Edison, or his ghostwriter, said:
"We have all heard a great deal during the past few years about the growing demand for better films for motion picture patrons of all ages. I have felt from the very start that little would be accomplished toward meeting this demand seriously until some responsible producer thought more of the future good of the business than the present gain. I have assumed the investment necessary to produce a better grade of clean and wholesome films with full confidence that the American people will support 'EDISON CONQUEST PICTURES' so that they may ultimately produce a fair return on their original cost. These pictures are free from all features which have made the motion picture objectionable to many people and may be viewed by the entire family.


The idea behind Conquest Pictures, made by the Edison Company and distributed by K-E-S-E (Kleine-Edison-Selig-Essanay) was to provide theaters with a complete package, a feature film and a set of short subjects.  The Conquest idea was not Edison's, but was conceived by George Kleine (The "K" in K-E-S-E).

Motion Picture News, 24-March-1917
The Conquest slogan was "The Open Road to Romance and Knowledge."  I'd like to know what a barefoot boy with a bindle has to do with conquest.

Moving Picture World, 29-September-1917
Conquest Program No. 9 was a package made up of a five-reel feature adaption of Robert Louis Stevenson's popular adventure novel Kidnapped and four short subjects, a scenic view of Provincetown, Massachusetts, a silhouette version of "Little Red Riding Hood," a microscopic view of pond life, and "Friends, Romans and Leo," a one-reel comedy.

Fritzi had the idea of recreating the program.  All five movies still exist, against great odds, and she was able to assemble them into a new package on a DVD-R.  Maestro Ben Model provided a suitable piano accompaniment for each element. Fritzi raised money for the production through a Kickstarter campaign.

The full title is Kidnapped: A Complete 1917 Night at the Movies.  I find it interesting that no one seems to have thought of doing a complete program like this.  I suppose the poor survival rates of silent films makes it difficult to put together a group like this.

Moving Picture World, 06-October-1917
"The program is about the average quality of Conquest programs."

'Friends, Romans and Leo" was a comedy about a slave, played by Raymond McKee, who saved the Roman Emperor from a moneylender and won the hand of the Emperor's daughter.  It had many anachronistic jokes. The lion was funny. Alan Crosland directed.

"Little Red Riding Hood" was an adaption of the fairy tale done in silhouette.  When I hear of a silhouette film, I think of Lotte Reiniger's animated movies, but this film was done with live action. I noticed that in close shots, we could see some of the features of the actors.

Moving Picture World, 13-October-1917
"Quaint Provincetown" had some interesting views of life in a town inhabited by fishermen and artists.  It had no narrative flow.

Moving Picture World, 06-October-1917
"Microscopic Pond Life" was well photographed and nearly as exciting as you might expect.

The feature, Kidnapped, moves swiftly through the events of Stevenson's novel.  Raymond McKee was too old to play David Balfour, but he was fun to watch.  Joseph Burke played David's Uncle Ebeneezer in an over-the-top way, which was appropriate for the part.  Robert Cain was suitably colorful as Alan Breck.  The settings were frequently beautiful.  Alan Crosland directed.  So Raymond McKee and Alan Crosland were involved in this movie and "Friends, Romans and Leo."

Kidnapped: A Complete 1917 Night at the Movies is worth seeing and it makes a nice companion to the Kino box set Edison - The Invention of the Movies: 1891-1918.  I recommend it highly.

You can order it from Amazon.

I should take this opportunity to mention that Fritzi has also created a podcast which is worth a visit:

Friday, March 8, 2019

International Womens Day, 2019 -- March 8, 2019

Happy International Womens Day. #InternationalWomensDay

"How can we expect righteousness to prevail when there is hardly anyone willing to give himself up individually to a righteous cause? Such a fine, sunny day, and I have to go, but what does my death matter, if through us, thousands of people are awakened and stirred to action?" -- Sophie Scholl

Thursday, March 7, 2019

Mission of the Aerial Ship -- March 7, 2019

San Francisco Call, 25-November-1896
There were many sightings of unidentified flying objects in the United States during the late 1890s. I wonder what people saw. This is our third report from the San Francisco Call.  
18-November-1896: "Claim They Saw a Flying Airship"
23-November-1896: "The Great Airship That is Startling the People of Many Cities"

The San Francisco Examiner was a competitor of the Call.  "Faker Billy" was probably William Randolph Hearst, who had received the newspaper from his father in 1887.  

Will Probably Be Used to Destroy the City of Havana.
Interesting Details of the Powers of the Mysterious Conqueror of the Air.
Oakland People Claim to Have Seen Intricate Evolutions in Midair — Venus and Jupiter as Fair Deceivers.

Ex-Attorney-General W. H. H. Hart now has charge of the destinies of the airship, which has hitherto been under the legal wings of Attorney George D. Collins. The reason for the change is said to be due to the loquacity of Mr. Collins. The inventor, who is said to be extremely desirous of maintaining his incognito, thinks that Collins talked not wisely and too much.

General Hart admitted his new and mysterious responsibilities yesterday and then made the sensational announcement that the airship was to be used in the service of the Cuban insurgents and intimated that Havana was to be the first point of attack.

While the new custodian of the secrets relative to the aerial mystery states that be has not himself seen the wondrous invention he expresses himself as confident that it can do all that has been ascribed to it by those who claim to have seen it in operation above the earth. He expects to make a fortune out of it for all concerned within a few months.

It is now reported that the inventor is a Dr. Catlin, who was assisted in the work of construction by Dr. E. H. Benjamin.

While The Call is not in a position to give it as a positive fact that a successful airship has been constructed and put into operation, neither is it prepared to say that the thousands of people who claim to have seen such a thing are mistaken. In this connection it regrets that it has to call attention to two deliberate attempts of the Examiner to play upon the credulity of the people.

One of these attempts was made in Oakland on Monday and another hoax was attempted in this City last night. Both were feeble and ineffective, and acted only as boomerangs on that "Monarch of the Fakers."

Considerable excitement was created in this City last night by the mistaken idea that got abroad that the airship was visible. The peculiar flight of Venus across the western horizon and the brilliant reflection from Jupiter in the east caused this false impression.

Oakland again contributes an interesting chapter to the aerial history of the past week. Among other things it is asserted that the airship was seen performing intricate evolutions in mid-air.

All the secrets of the mysterious airship are now in the hands of ex-Attorney-General W. H. H. Hart. The responsibility of their keeping was legally transferred yesterday from George D. Collins to that gentleman.

Mr. Hart spoke freely and fully of the machine, but declined to divulge the name of the inventor and owner, its present location or its mechanism. It was learned by a Call reporter from another source, however, that the name of the inventor and owner is Dr. Catlin ; that he was assisted in his work by Dr. E. H. Benjamin and George Applegate, and that the machine is housed within a short distance from San Francisco.

Attorney Collins was visited by the airship inventor yesterday morning, and according to Mr. Collins' story, the latter asked to be relieved from anything further to do with the aerial mystery. His client, he said, asked him to recommend another attorney, and the result was that a visit was paid to the office of the ex-Attorney-General, whose offices are a few flights higher up in the Crocker building. After a short consultation the mysterious client was under the legal protection of Mr. Hart. "General, I understand that Dr. Catlin, the inventor of the airship seen in various parts of the State within the past week, has placed his interests in that wonderful creation in your bands," was the first remark addressed to the new custodian of the secret, of which the world is to-day anxiously and impatiently awaiting an explanation in detail.

After admitting that such a transfer had been made only a few hours before, the ex-Attorney-General, without further preliminary, went on and made a series of most astounding revelations in reference to the machine and its ultimate purpose. Tuis is his story, exactly as he told it:

"There are two inventions and they are very much alike. One was perfected in the East and the other in California. I have been concerned in the Eastern invention for some time personally. The idea is to consolidate both interests.
'I have seen the machine invented in the East and I am convinced it will work all right, and from what I have been told I don't see any reason why the machine invented in California cannot be worked.

"My plan of utilizing the invention would be different from that of other people - in the way of making money out of it. and in order to do so there would have to be complete secrecy in regard to it.

"I have very little doubt the California invention will work. The whole trouble in the problem of aerial navigation has bean a question of motive power. In this they have the right motive power, which is without question sufficient to work the ship, and that is by electric storage batteries.

"My plan of operating this invention requires it to be kept as secret as possible. I propose to use it wholly for war purposes, and within the next five or six months it will be put to the test.

"From what 1 have seen of it I have not the least doubt but that it will carry four men and 1000 pounds of dynamite.

"Before it is brought into practical use, however, two important modifications must be made. It must be so constructed that if it should be injured while over a body of water and drop, it will float like a boat. The bottom will also have to be protected so that the cylinder cannot be penetrated by rifle bullets or weapons of small caliber.

"Because we expect to use it for war purposes is the reason I will not give the names of the persons who are interested in it. We don't want to be arrested as filibusters on the first trial of the machine.

"This machine will be tested in the neighborhood of San Francisco from time to time. I don't expect to see it myself or even get a look at it. I have had a full description of it, however, from the people interested. I was with them this afternoon for some time.

"I believe it can be used so that the inventor and the parties interested can make from $5,000,000 to 10,000,000 out of it in five or six months.

"Four men or two men can operate it. From what I know of it, I am quite convinced that two to three men could destroy the city of Havana in forty-eight hours.

"This machine is being tested in California owing to the favorable character of climate. There is one drawback to the invention, and that is that the inventor cannot cause it to stand still; it must be kept moving like an arrow. Otherwise it is under perfect control. There is no doubt about this. It can be made to rise from a dead standstill. I cannot go into details about its construction, but will admit that it is of cylindrical shape, is built of aluminum and has wings but, I cannot tell you even how many wings it has.

"I do not know yet whether or not an application for a patent has been made. But if one bas gone on to Washington I shall try to withdraw, as I do not think it will be good policy for us to let the information that would thus be furnished become public, owing to the purpose for which we first propose to use it. We would rather make $5,000,000 in six months than $100,000 for fifty years.

"I am quite positive that The Call is right in what it has reported, but I can't say, of course, whether this machine is the one that has been seen by the people of Sacramento and other towns.

"Before the invention is put to a practical test as a war engine it will be remodeled with the changes 1 have suggested, and the new machine will be a combination of both inventions."

"Does the inventor, your client, sail on these trial trips that are being made?" was asked.

"That I cannot tell you, because I have not talked of this phase of the matter with him."

"How much longer will these experiments in California continue?"

"That I can't tell, but probably until they become fully satisfied with the working of the ship."

Over One Hundred Miles Covered In a Few Hours

Probably the most interesting story told of the much-talked-of airship comes from one recently admitted into the inner circle of confidence and who it is believed carries a little bunch of airship stock in his inside pocket. It was only under a promise of concealing his identity that he consented to tell of what be knew of the recent movements of the mystery of the clouds. In speaking thereof, he said:

"One of the surprising features of the affair is that the inventor has been able to keep his invention away from the prying eyes of the public so long. As you may suppose, it took some time to construct the ship."

"Where was it constructed?" he was asked.

"Well," it is no use to keep that a secret any more than it would be for a hen to keep secret the location of her old nest after the brood is hatched and away. It was built not such a great distance out of Oroville at the home of the inventor's aunt. The statement of other parties to the effect that the material wa3 brought from the East and put together in this State is correct. The men worked hard for some time to get the parts together in the right shape, and several short experimental flights were made to test the batteries and machinery."

"Then electricity is the power used?"

"Yes; one of the forces of nature that is made use of. The ship carries a storage battery. The hull is of aluminum. But I must not say too much about the thing itself, for I have never seen it. yet. The first night that it was seen by the people in Sacramento was the first time that the inventor made a practical test of the strength, buoyancy and speed of his ship.

"He started out alone, for, to tell the truth, even his assistants were a little timid about venturing off the earth. Well the doctor started out alone and went to n great elevation, when be discovered that one of the copper bearings was becoming heated and be wanted to get nearer the earth. He slowed up his speed and began to come down, and as he approached the earth he realized that he had lost his course to some extent, for he could not clearly make out the nature of the country over which he had been and was passing.

"High hills and low hills have about the same appearance to a man high up in the air, you know. At last he made out that he was approaching a large town, for he saw many electric lights, and in order to be sure of his bearing and location he steered straight for the lights. He soon recognized that he was close to Sacramento. To tell the truth he had dropped lower than he intended and the lights on the airship attracted the attention of a large number of people of that city.

"The next morning an account of the mysterious light in the sky over Sacramento was published in The Call. The people of Sacramento made one mistake, and that is they did not hear voices. It was the noise of the machinery and the hum of the wheels that they heard and mistook for voices and songs. I have no idea that the doctor either sang or talked to himself, for he was entirely alone, as I said before, on the first voyage.

"He spent the night sailing around in the sky and about 3 o'clock in the morning he landed In the barnyard of a farm situated in one of the bay counties. He put his airship into the barn and locked the door, for he bad previously made arrangements to that end. The ship worked splendidly and behaved most satisfactorily. Of course there were improvements to be made and several changes were necessary. But taken on the whole everything went well.

"This was the very first trip of the new airship. Since then he has been out nearly every night, so 1 am told, and as he has not limited himself as to distance the ship has been seen at night by people in many localities. There, that is all I am going to tell you this time."

Dr. C. A. Smith Has No Doubt That an Airship Is Being Tested.

"Have I seen the airship? Well, I can't say that I have," said Dr. C. A. Smith, the inventor, when seen in his office in the Spreckels building last night. "But I have no reason to doubt that it is an airship the people in this City and other cities have seen in the heavens for the past few nights.

"I have been experimenting on air machines for the past forty-eight years and have invented no less than thirty useful machines, some of which have been used in every State of the Union. I know of its practicability as I have had a model running through the air.

"I expect to have machinery ready for business in the beginning of next April to make a trip across the continent. It will be 160 feet long from bow to stern and 125 feet cylinder. The main body will be 125 feet long. The front end will be a cone, as it is a scientific fact that a cone presents less resistance in passing through the air than any other solid body. The gas compartments will be in the upper portions of the cylinder and cone, and after being filled with hydrogen and acetylene gas, recently discovered, they will be hermetically sealed. The sheet aluminum to be used is lighter per square foot than the oiled and varnished silk used in making balloons.

"The rear end of the ship will be made like a frustum of a cone and the air will thus pass freely back to the propeller, which will drive the ship. In the interior will be a cabin for passengers 35 by 40 feet, entirely partitioned off from the gas. In the bow inside of the shell will be a pilot-house, from which the rudders will be operated and controlled. It will have windows, so that the pilot can see in all directions.

"A horizontal rudder of sufficient dimensions will steer the ship up or down, and a vertical rudder will steer it to right or left. Both will be on the stern. The wings will extend the full length of the cylinder and in flight will be used as aeroplanes, like the wings of the larger birds, and in crossing currents of air they will be closed. When in a light atmosphere, too light for the gas, the wings can be utilized to carry the ship up into the atmosphere.

"There will be a well-hole in the bottom for an anchor and above will be a capstan on which the rope will be wound. The ship will land by deflecting the wings and the horizontal rudder; the propeller will drive the ship forward, the aeroplane, wings and rudder steering it to the earth. It will pass above a platform where an anchor rope will be fixed, and the capstan will then draw it down onto the platform.

"I can get a Maxim engine which weighs 320 pounds and produces 189 horsepower. The ship will carry from twenty-five to thirty passengers. I calculate that the ship will run at a speed of 100 miles per hour and perhaps more.

"As to light, we can have a storage battery to give all that is necessary. The gas will be inclosed in aluminum compartments, so that it cannot escape, and this will insure permanent buoyancy, and, as a consequence, absolute safety.

"I do not know who is the inventor of the airship that people say they see flying through the atmosphere. When it is placed before the public it will, I think, be seen that it is identical with the one I have described."

These Celestial Orbs Mistaken by Thousands for the Airship.

An amusing phase of the airship mystery was developed last night, when that inoffensive planet Venus, sinking in the west, was mistaken for the clipper of the clouds scudding across the empyrean. That the bright light which excited the curiosity of many thousands on Market street about 6 p. M. was nothing more than Venus there seems to be no room for logical doubt in view of a statement obtained from such an authority as Professor Davidson last night.

Avoiding scientific details it will be sufficient to say that the planet Venus is at this season of the year almost at the full, and may be seen any clear evening after dusk traveling rapidly from east to west until she disappears below the horizon.

As soon as the professor heard the story, shortly after 7 p. m., he got out his telescope and had no difficulty in identifying the supposed airship as an ordinary, everyday star.

At 6 o'clock last night or thereabouts the cry was raised on Market street that the headlight of the much-talked-of airship was plainly visible at a lofty altitude in the neighborhood of the Chutes. Excited groups of men and women rapidly gathered in every direction and all eyes began to scan the skies. Sure enough a bright speck of light was at once distinguished high in the heavens and at that time seeming to be out toward the west in a line with Market street. After an interval it was noticed that the light had changed its position somewhat, moving apparently west and north. Speculation ran riot, but the consensus of opinion was decidedly in favor of the airship theory, to which the gradual movement of the light seemed to lend a color of probability. A few unimaginative ones were sufficiently prosaic to suggest that the light was merely the star Venus, but the majority quickly scorned that suggestion as absurd in the highest degree.

It is safe to assume that Venus has been acting just as she did last night for many years past, but never before, as far as can be learned, has she been mistaken for an airship.

Nob Hill and various other portions of the City also had their crowds of heavenward-gazers viewing the unembarrassed Venus in the firmament. On California street hill there were the buds and beauties of society in elegant wraps and gallants equipped with lorgnettes, while near the water front binoculars were brought into requisition.

Later in the evening Jupiter, scintillating brightly east of the zenith, drew the attention of thousands in a similar manner. Some claimed it was the airship, which had reached that position by a circuitous route.

But those who had seen what they confidently asserted were the lights of the airship declared that neither of these celestial beacons resembled the lights that had previously crossed their vision.

BERKELEY, Cal., Nov. 24.— The mysterious airship, or at least a big light that was taken for it, was seen by a large number of Berkeleyans to-night. It appeared to be hovering over the bay, and a large crowd gathered at the corner of Center street and Shattuck avenue to watch it and speculate as to what caused the light. The ship, or whatever it was, soon disappeared without allowing any of the spectators to see more than a moving light like that of a searchlight.

CHICO, Cal., Nov. 24.— Although discredited by many as being a hoax and a phantom story, yet there are many people who firmly believe in the airship. Last evening about 7 o'clock a bright and sparkling light was seen in the sky west of Chico. The light seemed to be traveling with great rapidity in a northwesterly direction. Many people living along Fifth street were out with craned necks looking at the mysterious fire, and all who saw the aerial light will vouch for the certainty of an airship.

RED BLUFF. Cal., Nov. 24.— Fully fifty people in Red Bluff are now willing to vouch for the reality of the airship. What appeared to be it passed a few miles west of Red Bluff about 7 o'clock this evening at an elevation of probably 2000 feet. In a few minutes it fell fully 1000 feet and all the time was traveling rapidly westward. It finally disappeared over the Coast Range Mountains, going in the direction of Eureka. The light only was visible and appeared to be about the size of a good-sized arc tight.

Underhand Attempts to Discredit the Airship Story.

Just as the theatrical audiences were leaving the theaters last evening at 11:30 o'clock a balloon with a light attached to its base shot up into the air immediately over the Examiner's business office on Market street. It passed speedily along over Market street and attained an altitude of about 100 yards, when it passed over the buildings on Market street, opposite Mason. Those who saw the balloon shoot into the air from the corner of O'Farrell and Market streets are positive that they discerned the picture of "Faker Billy" on the alleged aerial ship, which caused many people to crane their necks and cry, "Oh, there she goes!" shoot into the air from the corner of O'Farrell and Market streets are positive that they discerned the picture of "Faker Billy" on the alleged aerial ship, which caused many people to crane their necks and cry, "Oh, there she goes!"

The balloon swept along rapidly and attained a height of at least half a mile before it struck a new current, when it changed its course and slowly drifted in the direction of the Alameda marshes, where in all probability the remnants of it will be discovered by some duck-hunter to-morrow.

OAKLAND. Cal., Nov. 24.— One of the funniest stories in connection with the airship was that told by a so-called detective-reporter, who came over here last night from San Francisco to create some imaginary men playing with an imaginary airship on Inspiration Point. This individual came over about 10 o'clock and boarded a Piedmont car. He asked the conductor for his name and number, and requested the carman to take a good look at him so that he could prove he had really been to Blair's Park. The detective must have been of a very amateurish disposition, for before he reached Piedmont the conductor knew what his mission was, and that he was connected -with the American Detective Agency, and that he was working for the Examiner.

The conductor referred to is No. 13 and his name is Crist. The man who claimed to be an Examiner reporter was a large man with a black mustache. On coming in from Inspiration Point he went straight to the Examiner branch office, on Broadway, and left for San Francisco on the 11:20 broad-gauge train. His plan, as outlined to a friend, is this:

He was to tell a story of having gone to Inspiration Point, where he saw two men who were working with a machine like a balloon placed lengthwise, to which was attached a light and some arms and an apparatus like a kite. When the detective reporter approached the two men were to run away and pack their traps with them. The detective-reporter further stated that he had been perfecting his plans for several days, so as to upset The Call's story.

Conductor Crist said to-night: "I was accosted by an individual last night who wanted my name and number. I gave him the latter when he told me he was an Examiner reporter. After promising me faithfully not to use my name and saying he wanted it to prove that he had been out to Blair Park I gave it. He came out on the 9:38 car and reached the park at 10. He wanted to know what car he could take back in order to catch the 11:22 local. I told him to get the 10:53, and I presume he did. He could have reached Inspiration Point and returned if he hurried, but as it was so wet and slippery I doubt if he ever saw the point."

The Examiner amused Oaklanders this morning by publishing the following:

Alexander D. McAvoy of the American and International Detective Agency, whose office is in the Mills building in this City, last evening discovered the source of at least some of the mysterious lights, perhaps all of them. By quiet Investigation he learned that Blair Park, in the northern suburbs of Oakland, is the place of operation of two men who have been hoaxing the people of Oakland and this City. He stationed himself in the park and watched for what he might see. At exactly twenty-eight minutes after 10 o'clock he saw rising from Inspiration Point, a high shelf on the Piedmont hills, about 500 yards from his place of observation, an object kite-shaped, about ten feet in length, with wheels like little windmills. On the sides of the structure were lights, and from it hung a Japanese lantern, red in color, and about one foot in diameter. It moved slowly before the wind. He plainly saw two men on the point, and accosted them as they descended the path. They told him that they were sending up objects such as he had seen to mystify the people and to give them material for newspaper articles.

The absurdity of the above can be appreciated when it is stated that at exactly 10:28 o'clock last night, and for hours before and for hours after, the rain fell in torrents, and a "Japanese lantern red in color and about one foot in diameter" would have lived about half a second. Detective McEvoy said he saw the apparatus "500 yards from his point of observation." A man who could see through 500 yards of last night's storm on Inspiration Point would make a fortune in a dime museum.

W. J. Kenney Furnished One for an Airship, He Thinks.

There is no one among the watchers for the mysterious moving light in the sky who scans the skies with more interest than does William J. Kenney of Kenney and Payton. model-makers and bicycle dealers, 519 Valencia street. The reason for Mr. Kenney's interest is that he believes he is the maker of some part of the aerial wonder.

Mr. Kenney's skill is responsible for a contrivance known as a "ball-bearing worm."

"A man about 45 years of age, wearing a gray mustache and appearing to be a professional man, called on me about three or four weeks ago,' said Mr. Kenney last evening, "and laid before me his plans for an unusually large and high-speed 'worm.' I immediately concluded that he was intent on making an improvement on the cyclometer, a bicycle run by a small gasoline motor, and proceeded to fill his order.

"He explained that he wished the worm and gear to be practically frictionless, and I suggested that the journals of the piece of mechanism be fitted with ball bearings. He acquiesced and gave me the measurements, and we went to work. For two weeks we labored on the worm and finally completed it.

"The party who gave us the order failed to give us his name, but appeared to have plenty of money and paid one bill, $143, without a question. He was very anxious to have the piece of machinery completed, and when it was finally done he took it and left the store in a hurry.

"We have not seen him since, and until all this talk of an airship thought nothing more of the matter.

*'When the aerial wanderer was finally seen, however, it dawned upon me that the man who bought the worm was interested in this airship and that my production was a part of it.

"To strengthen mv belief I had many mechanical problems before me. First, the gear of the arm was too high for a cyclometer and it was just the thing to compress air or run a small dynamo.

"In view of the terrific speed it would produce it was worthless for any other use. Lastly, the peculiar actions of the man who ordered the worm have convinced me beyond a doubt that the machine is now being used on this airship."

Peculiar Performance of the Aerial Visitor Above Oakland.

OAKLAND. Cal., Nov. 24.— Oakland was beside itself to-night with excitement. For over two hours a large light attached to something was seen cruising over the city toward San Francisco and back again. About 7 o'clock the report was started that the airship was to be seen, and people at once began to congregate in the streets and gaze at the heavens.

The excitement commenced when the 6:30 train from San Francisco arrived at Broadway. While crossing the bay the passengers had observed the strange thing in the sky, and the interest increased with the number of beholders. They watched the movable light, which alternated between remaining stationary and taking flights in the sky.

Of course many were skeptical and declared it was a brilliant star or possibly a planet, but when they received visible proof that it did not remain many minutes in any one particular constellation they joined the majority and agreed that they were looking at a veritable airship.

Soon after the arrival of the train the strange thing was seen over Oakland, south of Sixth street, and as it passed across Broadway the street was crowded. One of the most noticeable features of it was the frequency with which the light was put out and made to shine again. This was afterward explained by one of the spectators who watched it with a powerful glass and stated that he could see the machine performing evolutions which caused the light to shine in different directions. It did not appear to move rapidly, but it was at a great height above the earth and was somewhat unsteady in its motion, which somewhat resembled that of a ship in a seaway.

As it passed over the city thousands of people saw it and were anxious to add their testimony that it was a genuine air vessel. Among them were Colonel Garrity, City Electrician Carleton, George Hatton, managing editor of the Tribune, Melvin Holmes, ex-deputy Superintendent of Streets, and scores of others.

The mystery of the skies was watched every foot of its course by curious thousands.
The aerial rover appeared to cross the bay and hover over San Francisco for a time and then return. While passing over the city the light disappeared tor a time and when it was again visible the machine was over East Oakland. As soon as it crossed Thirteenth avenue Deputy Constable Robinson announced its approach and as it went by fully 5000 people turned out to see it.

"I am willing to make an affidavit that I saw the airship," said Deputy Robinson to-night. "There was no fake about it and we could plainly see that it had a motion like a ship. It wheeled around over Alameda and then seemed to cross over San Leandro toward Piedmont." By the time it was headed for Piedmont the excitement was intense. Proprietors and clerks came to the shop doors; bartenders left their beer pumps; ladies stopped walking and directed their attention heavenward; cable and electric cars slacked up so that passengers might peep at the wondrous light.

At the Galindo Hotel the windows were thrown open and guests appeared with all manner of spyglasses and looked at the traveling light. Sometimes they declared that there were several smaller lights visible and that they could see a dark object, but it was too high in the air for any of them to detect the nature of its wings or tail, if it had any.

At Fourteenth and Broadway a large crowd gathered and grew excited as the remarkable light cruised around and occasionally disappeared. The play of lights causes many to think that the party who was directing the thing of the night was signaling to some one on the earth. Everybody agreed that no tricks with kites or balloons could account for what they saw, for the light was so brilliant and powerful that to produce it a dynamo of no mean capacity must be carried.

Melvin Holmes, ex-Deputy Superintendent of Streets and a man well known in Oakland, leveled a glass at it and declared it is an air traveler of some description. George Carleton, the City Electrician, who is better known than almost any man in this city, knows the name of the inventor. Carleton was taken into confidence by a friend of the inventor, and he vouches for the honesty of his informant. Anybody who will doubt George Carleton when he says a thing is true does not know the man. Carleton told his story this morning, but He kept all names to himself.

"I was pledged not to divulge them, and I'd saw my leg off first," he replied to all questions touching identity. "I heard the story last night from a friend of mine, who is also a member of my lodge of Masons. It was he who talked with the man who saw the machine, and I was told the name of the inventor by my friend. As I understand it, the ship was made near Oroville. The inventor made an ascension of several hundred feet, flew off four or five miles, circled around a few times and landed as nicely as could be. This my friend's friend saw. Both men are reliable, and neither of them have figured in the matter before."

Fred Gattee of 855 Broadway, as soon as he heard that the machine was over Oakland, rushed for his telescope and declares that he distinctly saw the machine perform conic evolutions in the air. While he could not see the details he is positive that he saw it maneuvering.

Manager Jesse Halsted of the Oakland Theater watched the machine cross over Oakland, and with a pair of opera-glasses satisfied himself that he saw an airship. The mysterious light of the heavens was also seen last evening by Mrs. E. H. Crawford and Miss Kate N. Bassett, a teacher at the Harrison-street School. The ladies after some hesitation told their experiences. "I went to my south window about 10:30 last evening," said Mrs. Crawford, "to see if it was raining. I noticed a light off in the south, and watched it because it was the only light visible. In a few moments it disappeared, and later came to view again. It looked like the searchlights I have seen at the World's Fair and in New York City. I called Miss Bassett, and we both watched it for fully fifteen minutes and until it finally disappeared.

"When first seen it appeared to be moving away from us and gradually sank until out of our sight. Miss Bassett said it must be an electric light with a tree waving in front of it, but this was not the case, as it was too high, and then I looked this morning, but there was no tree anywhere near where we saw the light. Neither of us saw an airship, but we did see lights that we do not understand, and shall take much interest in watching this evening and for some time to come to see whether the lignt is to be seen any more.

"Before I went to bed, about 11:15, I again went to the window and the light had returned and was moving eastward slowly, but steadily. I could not tell how far away the light was or anything about it, but having read the account in the papers concluded that the light must be the same as seen by others in this vicinity."

Dr. J. H. Buteau was another who stood amazed as he viewed the strange visitor passing through the heavens. "I was at Seventh and Market streets this evening," said he, "when I noticed a very strong clear light down near the horizon, moving along in the face of the wind. The movement was very steady, and it made good time, although we watched it for fully ten minutes. As it receded it appeared to go lower. but that would be natural if it was moving on a level. I am at a loss to account for the display, as I am incredulous regarding the talk that it is an airship. It might be a light attached to a balloon moving in an upper stratum of air. We could see it go behind buildings and emerge later on the other side as we watched its movements."

The mysterious machine finally disappeared over toward Contra Costa County, and before midnight all Oakland was satisfied that it had seen the airship.

J. B. Loser Saw a Mysterious Rapidly Moving Brilliant Light.

SEBASTOPOL, Cal., Nov. 24.— The report that an airship has been observed floating around in various sections of the State has created widespread interest in Sonoma County, and it now transpires that several citizens whose integrity is unquestionable have noticed the mysterious craft flying through the air at night with a headlight as brilliant as an electric flash.

J. B. Loser, proprietor of the Analy Hotel at this place gives a graphic description of the vessel, and his story is corroborated by the testimony of numerous citizens both here and at Santa Rosa. He says that while driving to the county seat a few evenings ago he observed what appeared to be a brilliant light in the heavens. A few moments later the dazzling object seemed to be less than a mile away and then it gradually wended its way in an eastern direction and finally disappeared. Mr. Loser says that it was a phenomenon such as he had never seen before, and he thinks that the strange object was nothing more nor less than the mysterious craft that has been seen in other sections, as it tallies exactly with the description given in the papers.

A Rapid Aerial Traveler Observed In Placer County.

BOWMAN, Placer County, Cal., Nov. 24.— The articles published in The Call and other papers in reference to the observed mystical aerial traveler have aroused great interest here. Several persons in this locality have been favored with a view of the strange visitor.

C. T. Musso, a fruit rancher, and several members of his family affirm that about four weeks ago and shortly after dark they saw a singular sight, which they are now convinced could have been nothing else than the much-discussed airship. Mr. Musso says he saw "the prettiest sight that his eyes ever viewed." It appeared to be three very bright lights moving horizontally and easterly at a rate of perhaps 100 miles an hour.

A. H. Thompson, a painter, states that at about the same time he saw a similar sight, which he describes as being three very bright and large lights appearing about eight feet apart, and the forward one as being larger and brighter than the rest, and moving horizontally eastward rapidly and gracefully.

Professor S. D. Musso states that about two weeks ago he and his wife saw a similar sight moving in the same direction and with about the same velocity. He feels quite confident that it was not a meteor, as there were three lights appearing about seven feet from each other in a direct line, the forward one being larger than the other two. The light, he stated, was different from meteoric light, the velocity was too slow for a meteor, and it was traveling horizontally as long as it was seen, which was for several minutes.

People Willing to Swear the Light Had Huge Wings.

SANTA ROSA, Cal., Nov. 24.— The excitement over the airship has reached Santa Rosa, and the presence of a bright light in the heavens to night at 7:30 set hundreds of people star-gazing. The light appeared to be moving in an easterly direction, occasionally disappearing entirely from view with a dull red glow, only to reappear more radiant after a few seconds. It was impossible to see anything beyond the light, owing to the distance, but when it finally disappeared there were many people willing to swear that the object beyond the light had huge wings.

This light to-night revived the rumors of an airship invented by a man at Mark West that was said to have been entirely successful as far as the upward and onward direction was concerned, but it persisted in going off at an angle without warning.

On Saturday night, just before midnight, several reputable gentlemen of this city reported seeing a bright light moving in a southwesterly direction. It was first observed about two miles southeast of town, just above Taylor Mountain, and seemed to come from toward the Sacramento Valley. It moved quite swiftly and disappeared in the direction of Alameda County. This is vouched for by Charles Winters, a well-known merchant, and William Rohrer of the firm of Rohrer, Einhorne and Co.

John Stump of Orr and Stump, a would-be wag, and several others sent up a small balloon with a lantern attached this evening, but the presence of the big light in the east made his fake fade into insignificance.

While it is just possible that the light seen to-night was the work of some bold aeronaut there was nothing visible to show a balloon, and there are hundreds who believe it to be the famous airship that startled Sacramento.

Several Persons Claim They Saw the Airship Traveling in That Vicinity.

SAN JOSE, Cal., Nov. 24.-People in this city were startled to-night about 11 o'clock, on beholding a bright light moving rapidly in the heavens, and they are convinced that they beheld the famous airship. It was seen moving in the direction of Gilroy, as was testified by Eugene Barre, Dan Manning and Jerre Sullivan, who are employes of the Sunset Telephone Company. The light was of such a character that the parties are convinced that it was none of the ordinary lights in the sky. About one hour afterward others saw the same mysterious light moving northeasterly very rapidly, as if it were returning from the direction of Gilroy. These parties, James Stanley and M. J. O'Brien, are also positive that they beheld the rapidly moving light of the airship.

Twenty Centuries of Effort to Fly Like the Birds.
From the Classic Man of Crete to the Mystic Man of Oroville.
Flights of the Airship Toward the "Central Blue"— A Bird-Bicycle.

Ever since 66 B. C. man has been trying to follow the birds in their wanderings through the air. He has tramped every where on the earth's crust and in many places under it and is pluming himself for flights over it.

It is understood from an account — more or less vague, it must be admitted — that a flyer named Daedalus and his son Icarus had an occasion to leave the Isle of Crete 1962 years ago without their passports. They took to themselves wings one early morning before the detective force was astir and fluttered away. They got off all right and while the officers were chasing up a clew headed straight for Greece, like two horning pigeons bound for the cote of their birth. Daedalus skimmed along the surface of the Mediterranean and kept himself cool, but the boy was a high-flyer and caught a sunstroke. The wax by which his wings were stuck to his clavicles was melted and he dropped into the Icarian Sea like a shotted duck. It is supposed that the father alighted safely on a shore that had no extradition treaty with Crete.

Almost twenty centuries have gone by between the times the man from Crete and the man from Oroville — or somewhere — took a flyer. It is said, however, that during the fourth century B. C. Archytas of Tarentum made a pigeon of wood that flew quite well by means of a mechanical contrivance, but the patent office contains no accounts of his machine. In the year 66 A. D. one Simon did some experimental flying at Rome, and was considered by the early Christians to be doing business with the devil. This is probably why Nero, who was in the imperial office at the time, let him finish his flight unmolested, which Simon did till he fell and broke his neck one day in the Forum.

In the latter part of the fifteenth century one Dante — not the poet, whose flights were only those of fancy — had artificial wings with which he flew over the city of Perugia until he bent one of his pinions, and falling on the roof of the Church of the Virgin, broke his thigh. The first Englishman to go into the flying business was a learned Benedictine, Oliver of Malmesbury, who took the idea of Daedalus as described by Ovid and did considerable traveling around among the skylarks until he fell and broke his legs. He said the trouble was he had neglected to provide himself with a tail. Shortly afterward Cyrano of Bergerar advanced four different means of flying through the air. First, phials filled with dew, which would mount toward the sun ; second, a great bird of wood, the wings of which should be kept in motion; third, rockets, which going off successively would drive up the body by force of projection; fourth, by an octahedron of glass heated by the sun, of which the lower part should be allowed to penetrate the dense cold air, which pressing up against the rarefied hot air would raise the whole affair. He probably died while trying to get his theories patented.

Francis Lana in 1670 constructed the first flying machine, which is here shown. The specific lightness of hot air and hydrogen gas being unknown to Mr. Lana and his contemporaries he tried to make his machine rise by taking the air out of the globes. They collapsed, of course, which frightened the inventor out of aerostatics for all time.

Finally Montgolfier got heated air into his balloon, and aerial navigation took a long forward and upward stride — or flight. Man could lift himself, but he was ever at the mercy of the wind, which hurled him around in the depths of space of its own free will. This was a condition to be overcome, so he went back to the birds — back over the centuries to Daedalus and his wings. How do the feathered things navigate the atmosphere? was the query. Just one hundred years ago George Cayley constructed a small machine consisting of two screws made of quill feathers set like the sails of a windmill in two corks. By giving this a whirling motion with a stringed bow the thing was made to float gracefully in the air. In 1863 aeration received another impulse by Landelle's idea of a machine with two superposed screws propelled by an engine, the steam of which was generated in an aluminum boiler. As it could only lift a third of its own weight it did no flying, and the patent was never infringed upon.

Penaud in 1872 took the bat for a model and made an aeroplane with elastic wings, the posterior margins of which in addition to being elastic were free to move around the anterior margins as around axes. These wings because of the resistance of the air twisted and untwisted and formed reciprocating screws. When liberated in the air this artificial bat dropped about two feet, then flew for some distance, gradually rising during its flight.

Professor Lilienthal two years ago made a number of successful flights near Berlin with a pair of artificial wings. By shifting his center of gravity relatively to the center of resistance he gave the wing surface any inclination, and was able to control his movements to a certain extent. However the professor limited his experiments to low and short flights and has escaped the fate of Icarus.

Professor Wellner, a few years ago, patented a rotary sail for flying-machines. The wheel or drum worked on a fixed eccentric, and the airblades attached to the spokes had an oscillating as well as a rotary motion. In the turning, the air would be drawn into this canvas-covered drum, between the movable blades, and as a result of this rotatory-oscillating motion the machine moved rapidly forward. The inventor calculated that a 1600-pound weight machine, with a 25-horsepower engine would drive it one and a half miles per minute.

Last year a catamaran airship was proposed for the United States coast defense, 400 feet long and about 50 feet in beam, and having two cigar-shaped hulls. It would be lifted by hydrogen gas and provided with 200-horsepower engines and applied to two vertical propellers. It would carry a crew of eight men, with provisions, dynamite bombs for the aquatic ships of an enemy, coal and water for the engines, the whole to weigh 68,700 pounds when ready for sailing — or rather flying. Its estimated speed would be 35 knots an hour. When the Government accepts the plans, Mr. Scott of the Union Works may get one of those atmospheric cruisers.

The great flying machine of the eminent gun inventor, Hiram Maxim, is probably the most promising contrivance yet known in the realms of aerostatics. Complete with water, naphtha fuel and a crew of three men it weighs 8000 pounds, and running at forty miles an hour with a pressure of 275 pounds per square inch, the engines develop 360 horsepower; the thrust of the screws is 2000 pounds and the lifting effect of the aeroplanes and wings, 4000 feet in area, is 10,000 pounds. The inventor eschews the gasbag of balloons and the use of vertical screws for securing levitation, and relies entirely on the upward thrust on the aeroplane and wings, mounting at a slope of about one in eight, due to the currents of air rushing past them.

The method of launching this wonderful affair in space, as has been described, is from a railroad track, along which the machine runs to attain the velocity necessary to raise it in the air. To make a start it is tied up to the indicator-post in its rear and the propellers set in motion. They are soon driving a living gale of wind in their wake. When the pull of the rope has reached a definite amount, say 2000 pounds, a hook is released and the machine moves along the track. Presently it lifts itself bodily and sails away among the clouds. When the machine is perfected Mr. Maxim claims that no rails will be necessary as a short run over moderately level ground will be sufficient.

About the latest invention in aerial navigation is that of Rudolph Kosch. The apparatus consists of two pairs of wings, each rotating in a horizontal plane, but in different directions, so that turning the upper pair to the left will cause the lower pair to turn to the right. Both pairs of wings can be flapped down simultaneously while being turned, and then they appear in a combined rotary motion. The wings can also be set in relation to the shaft in such a way that the front edge of each wing is raised to any suitable angle around a pinion of the shaft, so that the two pairs of wings will appear and work like two propeller-screws, one right and the other left handed. the blades can be moved up and down while being turned.

The motor of this apparatus is operated by a man who sits in the saddle and turns the crank-shaft by means of common bicycle pedals, causing the wings to rotate while they are being flapped up and down by the handles. So when the wings are set like screwblades they will perform a wave like motion similar to the wing motion of a forward-flying bird, the only difference being that the bird's wing travels up and down and forward while these move up and down and around one center.

Kosch estimates that his bicycle-bird will scotch along through the clouds easily at the rate of 100 miles an hour, and a not very vivid imagination may picture the bloomer girl chasing the eagle to his eerie in the sun at no distant day. When man gets the wings of a dove the angelic age will be upon creation. In the meantime the world watches for the man from Oroville — or somewhere — to lift the world into space.

Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Music by Jazz Band -- March 5, 2019

Morgan City Daily Review, 01-March-1919
Happy Mardi Gras, everyone. 100 years ago, in 1919, Mardi Gras festivities were limited in New Orleans because of the recently concluded war, but the people of Morgan, Louisiana were invited to a Mardi Gras dance, featuring a jazz band. "Jazz" spelled that way was a fairly new word. "All invited."

This is not a jazz band, but I have always liked the Wild Tchoupitoulas.