Friday, May 31, 2019

NC-4, Cheered by Crowds, Reaches Plymouth -- May 31, 2019

New  York Tribune, 01-June-1919
On the fourth leg of the US Navy's attempt at a transatlantic flight, NC-4 flew from Lisbon, Portugal to Plymouth, England.

Huge Throngs Line
Historic Harbor
as Seaplane Dips
Lightly to Landing
Mayor Greets Fliers for City
Pictures Taken on Rock From Which Mayflower Sailed

New  York Tribune, 01-June-1919
PLYMOUTH, England, May 31 (By The Associated Press).-- Out of the haze that shrouded the embattled approaches to this historic harbor the American naval seaplane NC-4 emerged just after noon today in completion of her epoch-making flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Slowly her remarkable outline became clear and distinct to the thousands who lined the terrace -- known as the Hoe -- where hundreds of years ago Drake calmly bowled while the Spanish Armada sailed through the English Channel. Then, circling majestically over the harbor formed by the huge breakwater, the seaplane pioneer glided down upon the surface of the seas, a fitting conclusion of the most ambitious undertaking in the history of the world.

Into this port, which has been the starting point since the early Middle Ages of all the romantic exploits upon the Atlantic, the triumphant seaplane sailed, completing her 4,000-mile flight from Rockaway, Long Island, to England.

The finish of the journey was witnessed by thousands from the same vantage point that the friends of the Pilgrim Fathers bade goodby to their loved ones on the start of their adventurous passage across the ocean westward to the new land of promise.

Trip Made in Seven Hours

Leaving Ferrol, Spain, where Lieutenant Commander Albert C. Read had elected to pass Friday night, at 0:27 this morning, the NC-4 covered the distance of 425 miles to Plymouth in less than seven hours.

Despite adverse wind and weather conditions the NC-4 covered the last leg without a hitch to mar the exploit. Safe and sound, but thoroughly fatigued by the physical ordeal of the trip as well as the mental strain, Commander Read and his crew are sleeping peacefully to-night.

The rousing welcome of Plymouth residents to the American airmen and the cordial reception given to them aboard the Rochester by Admiral Plunkett, the Mayor of Plymouth, British and American officials and the crews of the other NC 'planes, reached a climax with the first actual landing of the victorious crew at the spot from which the Pilgrim Fathers set forth for America.

"Our trip really was uneventful," Lieutenant Commander A. C. Read said to the correspondents. "We knew we would-have trouble with fog, and did, but otherwise everything went off as we had planned."

"Our machine worked perfectly ever since we left Newfoundland with the exception of our little radiator leak yesterday."

Return Flight Suggested

It has been learned here unofficially that there is a prospect that the American seaplane NC-4 may fly home over the direct Atlantic route from Ireland to Newfoundland. It is understood a conference will be held here shortly to discuss the project.

American naval officers say the NC-4 is in better condition than when she began her flight. Furthermore, the experience gained by all of the NC-4'a navigators and pilots would prove of inestimable benefit should the return flight be attempted.

There was wonderful interest in to-day's flight, although it was eclipsed by the previous flights of this seaplane, for in the opinion of American naval officers and the British public generally the NC-4 reached the peak of her great adventure when she spanned the Atlantic at Lisbon. This stage of the journey was regarded by airmen chiefly as a "side show" to attest !he firm friendship which the war has cemented between this country and the United States.

Britons Applaud Feat

The pride felt by Americans in the extraordinary feat of the NC-4 finds echo to-night in genuine admiration expressed by British naval men and airmen for the crew's skill and pluck and the well-worked-out plans of the American navy to facilitate and safeguard the flight.

Early in the morning, when word was flashed that the NC-4 had started on the final leg of her journey, a heavy rain was falling, but shortly after noon the skies cleared and ideal conditions prevailed.

The NC-4 flew in rain and fog through the Bay of Biscay, and fog also was encountered off Brest, compelling the 'plane to keep at a low altitude.

Although news of the progress of the craft was passed along by warships stationed on the way it was not until noon that word was received from Commander Read himself. His message merely reported his position.

Mayor Greets Aviators

In his first greeting to Commander Read and his men, the Mayor of Plymouth said:

"It is with profound gratitude that I here to-day on behalf of old Plymouth, from which the Mayflower sailed three hundred years ago, welcome you after your tremendous and wonderful flight over the waters separating us. I think I can speak with the voice of England in expressing great admiration for your achievement and in welcoming to these shores our American cousins."

The NC-4 appeared suddenly out of the haze at 2:19, summer time. After circling over the harbor she dropped gracefully toward the Cattewater, alighting near the buoy prepared for her at 2:26. The great crowd on the harbor front heartily and craft tied down their whistles in noisy welcome.

The seaplane when sighted was flying high and leading an escort of three flying boats. Her enormous size, dwarfing that of the escorting 'planes, left no doubt of her identity. While the thousands of spectators yelled themselves hoarse, the flying boats dropped Very lights, and a fleet of small boats rushed to greet the Americans.

The captain's gig from the mine layer Aroostook proceeded to the NC-4 as the latter taxied up to her buoy, where she quickly made fast. It was a perfect landing. As her crew was being taken off by the boat from the Aroostook for reception on the Rochester the British flying boats swept into the Cattewater and drew up alongside the NC-4.

Harbor a Brilliant Spectacle

A strong west wind was blowing when the NC-4 came in. The inner harbor was calm, however, and presented a fine setting for the brilliant picture as viewed from the densely crowded slopes of Plymouth's celebrated playgrounds, the Hoe.

The haze hanging over the sound obscured visibility, and it was not until the NC-4 was over the harbor that her presence became known.

It had been expected that the American flier would arrive at a little before 2 o'clock and some anxiety was felt when the hour passed. Once flying boats which had been scouting out as far as the Eddystone Light, fourteen miles away, returned to the harbor and a false alarm was raised that the NC-4 had arrived.

The American naval base received seventy telegrams to-day directed to the commander of the NC-4, Lieutenant Commander A. C. Read, and others of the crew, congratulating them on the finish of the flight. The majority of the messages were from the United States, one being from Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy.

Fog Met Off Brest

Commander Read said that shortly before reaching Brest his seaplane ran into a thick fog. The NC-4 circled over the shipping in Brest Harbor and then passed directly over the lightship. The journey across the Channel was made at a very low altitude. The seaplane never flew at a greater height than 200 feet and only at 50 to 100 feet most of the way because of the fog.

Bad weather conditions prevailed during the flight across the Bay of Biscay. Nevertheless, the NC-4 kept to her course perfectly, and the trip from Ferrol was made at an average speed of about seventy miles an hour. Before alighting in the sound the NC-4 circled the Hoe and passed over the spot from which the Mayflower sailed.

After a brief reception aboard the Rochester Commander Read and his crew were taken to the Aroostook, where they doffed their flying clothes proceeding to Mayor U. P. Brown's reception at the Mayflower stone. The parade leading to the pier was lined with British bluejackets from men-of-war and shore stations. Behind the lines of bluejackets was an immense gathering of townspeople. On the gaily decorated pier a bluejacket guard of honor was drawn up under a canopy of Ailled flags. The Royal garrison artillery band played American and British anthems.

Town Officials in Robes.

Mayor Brown arrived in state, accompanied by three mace bearers. He wore a cocked hat and crimson robe with fur and the heavy gold mayoralty chain. With him also were the deputy mayor in gorgeous purple robe and the bewigged town clerk.

British and American officers stood with the Mayor lo receive the NC-4's crew. As their boat drew alongside the pier the band played "The Star Spangled Banner" and "God Save the King," and the crew then advanced to meet the Mayor.

In his address Mayor Brown said:

"Plymouth is always a point of historic interest to Americans. The memorable sailing of the Pilgrim Fathers from this spot, although comparatively unnoticed at the time, was an event which has proved to be a point in history of immeasurable interest. Mainly out of that small beginning a mighty people has sprung up, and to-day in most dramatic fashion their descendants have crossed back to us in a way never dreamed of by our forefathers, and equaling in scientific development and darig the greatest imagining of Jules Verne.

"While science has made their flight possible, the great note of the achievement is that it was the old spirit of daring, courage and enterprise which brought success. The world is ringing now, not only with your doings but with the great exploit of Hawker and Grieve, whose skill and pluck are acclaimed by all and rank with your performances.

"I am satisfied that the events we are celebrating to-day are but the precursors of further great developments, and that your achievement will go down in history not only as a great triumph over the elements, but as tending to strengthen the relationship between the two countries."

"Your flight to-day brings our two great countries together in the warmest fellowship. Gentlemen, I salute you and welcome you to England."

Mayor Brown then shook hands and chatted with the crew, while the crowd, in true British style, gave three cheers and a tiger. At the Mayor's suggestion, the crew of the NC-4 stood with him on Mayflower Stone to he photographed.

The journey from the pier to the hotel, where the Americans were entertained to-night by the Royal Air Force, became a triumphal procession, the crowds cheering the NC-4 and her crew.

NC-4 Log Complete;
Last Entry Made

New York Tribune
Washington Bureau

WASHINGTON, May 31. -- The log of the last leg of the transatlantic flight, completed this morning with the arrival of the NC-4 at Plymouth, based on wireless and cabled dispatches received at the Navy Department to-day, follows:

1:21 a.m., from Plymouth: "NC-4 left Lisbon 6:23 (New York 2:23 a. m.), May 30, and landed Mondego River, getting underway and proceeding to Ferrol, where landed at 16:46 (12:45 New York time). Destroyers standing by NC-4; will proceed to Plymouth to-morrow if weather permits."

6:50 a. m. -- From Admiral Knapp at London: "From the Harding: 'U. S. S. Gridley to U. S. S, Rochester. NC-4 expects to leave Ferrol for Plymouth at 6 a. m. to-morrow morning, signed Read.'"

7:22 a. m. -- From Admiral Knapp at London: "NC-4 left Ferrol at 06:27 (2:27 a. m. New York time.)"

8:11 a. m. -- From Admiral Knapp at London: "Following received from U. S. S. George Washington: 'From U. S. S. Stockton, NC-4 passed station two at 07:43 (3:43 a. m. New York time.')"

9:24 a. m. -- From Admiral Knapp at London: "NC-4 passed station four at 09:06 (5:06 New York time.)"

9:50 a. m. From Admiral Knapp: "NC-4 arrived at Plymouth at 14:26:31, English civil time (9:26 a. m., New ork time)."

11:56 a. m. From Admiral Knapp: "NC-4 passed Mengam at 12:13, local time."

3:17 p. m. From Admiral Plunkett, commander of destroyer force at Plymouth: "NC-4 arrived at Plymouth 13:24 (9:24 a. m., New York time) in perfect condition. Joint mission of seaplane division and destroyer force accomplished. Regret loss of NC-1 and damage to NC-3; nevertheless, information of utmost value gained thereby. Has department any further instructions ?"

Log of the NC-4
DateTimeMovementElapsed TimeDistance in Miles
May 810:00 a.m.Left Rockaway.--
May 82:50 p.m.Forced down off Chatham.4 50211
May 149:25 a.m.Left Chatham.--
May 141:16 p.m.Arrived Halifax.3 51350
May 158:52 a.m.Left Halifax.--
May 159:22 a.m.Landed Storey Head to repair oil and gas lines.0 3026
May 1511:47 a.m.Left Storey Head.--
May 155:41 p.m.Arrived Trepassey.5 54434
May 166:07 p.m.Left Trepassey.--
May 179:20 a.m.Arrived Horta, Island of Fayal, Azores.15 131200
May 208:45 a.m.Left Horta.--
May 2010:25 a.m.Arrived Ponta Delgada.1 40150
May 276:18 a.m.Left Ponta Delgada.--
May 274:02 p.m.Arrived Lisbon, Portugal.9 44800
May 301:20 a.m.Left Lisbon.--
May 305:38 p.m.Forced down on Mondego River for repairs; took air again.4 18100
May 3012:35 p.m.Landed at Ferrol, Spain.6 59250
May 315:38 p.m.Left Ferrol.--
May 3112:35 p.m.Arrived Plymouth, England.6 59425
--Total.59 563,946

New  York Tribune, 01-June-1919
New  York Tribune, 01-June-1919

Fred Allen 125 -- May 31, 2019
Comedian Fred Allen was born 125 years ago today, on 31-May-1894. I used to listen to Gene Nelson's old time radio show on KSFO every night. He would play Fred Allen now and then. I read about Fred Allen in Jim Harmon's The Great Radio Comedians and sought a copy of Allen's memoir, Treadmill to Oblivion. I found it at the Richmond Branch library, and took it out several times. I later found Much Ado About Me and Fred Allen's Letters and read each of them several times. I think he influenced my sense of humor and delivery.
The few people who remember him today probably remember him for Allen's Alley and his long-time feud with Jack Benny.  The feud was staged, but it was often very funny.
His best performance in a movie was as one of the criminals in "The Ransom of Red Chief," part of the anthology movie O Henry's Full House. Oscar Levant, another favorite of mine, was his partner.

Wonder What Babe Ruth Thinks About When Making a Home Run -- May 31, 2019

El Paso Herald, 29-May-1919
Artist Clare Briggs speculates on Babe Ruth's thoughts when he hits a home run.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Leon Redbone, RIP -- May 30, 2019

I have always enjoyed hearing Leon Redbone's voice, whether on records or in commercials.  He always wore a hat and our tastes in music were similar.  He retired a few years ago because of poor health and now he has died.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Memorial Day 2019 -- May 27, 2019

On Memorial Day it is fitting and proper to remember the men and women who gave their lives, who continue to give their lives, to give us the country we deserve.

Marine Sergeant Major Daniel Daly was leading his men into a charge during the Battle of Belleau Wood in 1918. He yelled "Come on, you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever?" Daly is one of the few people who have received the Medal of Honor twice.

I took this photo on 14-December-2007 at the National Cemetery in the Presidio.

First to Cross Atlantic -- May 27, 1919

New  York Tribune, 28-May-1919
On the third leg of he US Navy's attempt at a transatlantic flight, NC-4 flew from the Azores to Lisbon, Portugal. On the second leg, NC-1 had to land on the ocean and a ship rescued its crew. NC-3, the flagship, landed on the water and was forced to sail to the Azores. Australian Harry Hawker, who had been chief test pilot and designer at Sopwith, along with navigator Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve, had taken off from Newfoundland in a Sopwith Atlantic and was forced down on the water when the engine failed. They were picked up by a ship without a radio so no one knew they were alive until the ship reached port.  

New  York Tribune, 28-May-1919
800-Mile Flight From Azores Is Made in 9 Hours, 43 Minutes,
Averaging 82 Knots ; Flying Time From Trepassey 27 Hrs.
Cheers, Bells and Sirens Shriek Welcome at Lisbon
Epochal Feat Is Declared Accomplished; Final "Leg" All in
Sight of Coast; Destroyers to Guide 'Plane Across Biscay Bay

New  York Tribune, 28-May-1919
WASHINGTON, May 27. -- Blazing the way of the first air trail from the western to the eastern hemisphere, the United States navy seaplane NC-4, under Lieutenant Commander Albert Cushing Read, swept into the harbor at Lisbon, Portugal, to-day, the first airship of any kind to have crossed the Atlantic Ocean under its own power and through its natural element.

Taking the air at Ponta Delgada, Azores, at 6:18 a. m., New York time, on the last leg of the transatlantic portion of the voyage from Rockaway Beach, Long Island, to Plymouth, England, the NC-4 covered the 800 miles in 9 hours and 43 minutes, maintaining an average speed of better than 82 knots an hour. The total elapsed flying time from Newfoundland to Lisbon was 26 hours and 41 minutes.

At the first opportunity the big 'plane will continue to Plymouth, 775 nautical miles to the north. Possibly Commander Read can start to-morrow. To the Navy Department, however, it makes little difference when he completes the journey. The great object of all the effort lavished on the undertaking -- navigation of a seaplane across the Atlantic through the air -- has been accomplished.

Twentieth century transportation has reached a new pinnacle, and the United States navy has led the way.

True Course Maintained Throughout

Naval officials emphasized that the long delay at the Azores was due to the weather and to no weakness of the machine or its daring crew, nor to any failure of the carefully laid plans of the department to guide the fliers to their destination. The fourteen destroyers strung from Ponta Delgada to Lisbon reported with machine-like precision to-day as the flight progressed. The 'plane was never off its course, and there was no moment when officials in Washington did not know to within a few miles where it was in the air.

To maintain adequate communication for this stage of the journey, the destroyers stuck to their posts after the flying boat had passed, relaying back to Ponta Delgada reports from ships further eastward. The chain was not broken until after the 'plane was safely moored for the night near the cruiser Rochester at Lisbon.

For the next few hundred miles of his epoch-making journey Commander Read and his crew will be within sight of the Portuguese or Spanish coasts in the sweep northward. Skirting the coast of Cape Finisterre, they will head out across the Bay of Biscay to Sight Brest, the most westerly point of France, thence direct to Plymouth.

The destroyers that will guide them across the bay were already in position to-night, provided with the flares and bombs that have made the trip safe thus far except for the fog that forced the other two machines of the seaplane division, the NC-1 and the NC-3, out of the flight after they had safely negotiated virtually the entire distance from Newfoundland to the Azores.

Original Crew Accompanies Read to Lisbon

Commander Read had with him on the flight to Lisbon the same crew as that which left Newfoundland on the NC-4 on May 16. Lieutenant E. F. Stone, of the Coast Guard, and W. K. Hinton were the pilots, with Ensign R. C. Rodd as radio operator, and Chief Machinist's Mate E. S. Rhoads as reserve pilot-engineer. The crew, was met at Lisbon by most of the members of the crews of the NC-1 and NC-3, who had preceded them on a destroyer.

The chart of the flight, as shown by the reports of the station ship destroyers on the NC-4's progress to-day, shows how the winds helped her along. At times, Commander Read's snip apparently was whirling through the air at a ninety-knot clip; again her speed fell off to less than sixty, only to pick up again as she reached the zone of influence of other breezes. Probably the machine overtook and passed winds that had stirred the waters about Ponta Delgada the day before, preventing earlier start.

Official word of the arrival of the 'plane at Lisbon reached the Navy Department first through a dispatch from Brest, France, sent by Rear Admiral Halstead, commander of the American naval forces in French waters. The message was received at the Otter Cliffs, Me., station and relayed to Washington.

Immediately Secretary Daniels cabled the congratulations of the department to Commander Read. The Secretary also sent a cable to President Wilson at Paris, telling him that American naval aviators had been the first to cross the Atlantic.

Daniels Cables News to Wilson

The cablegram from the Secretary to President Wilson said:
"Know you will be delighted to learn naval aviators first to cross Atlantic."

Secretary Daniels said to-day no definite plans for further trans oceanic flights had been made. He explained that the first trip was the beginning of a series of experiments in long distance flying and that very probably, after defects in naval aircraft, brought to light during the flight, had been corrected, another squadron of seaplanes would be headed across the Atlantic. Mr. Daniels said he had not decided whether the NC-4 should attempt to fly back to the United States or be "knocked down" at Plymouth and shipped back to America.

Whole of Lisbon Welcomes NC-4
Days of Waiting at Last
Rewarded When 'Plane Sweeps Over the City

LISBON, May 27 (By The Associated Press). The achievement of the first transatlantic air flight, with Lisbon as the first European stopping point, has aroused the enthusiasm of the Portuguese as no event has stirred them for many years. When the American seaplane NC-4 came over the Tagus River this evening the populace, crowding all places of vantage, gave full expression to this enthusiasm by cheers of welcome, the booming of guns and the ringing of bells.

For days the people of Lisbon have been awaiting the completion of this momentous voyage over the Atlantic and, though disappointed from day to day because of the inability of Commander Read's craft to continue its flight from the Azores because of unfavorable weather conditions, yet each day they looked hopefully toward the west, for the coming of the Americans. Now they are able to say that they never doubted that the NC-4 would wing its way safely across the intervening 800 miles of water.

Early in the day word was flashed that the NC-4 had started, and at intervals there were bulletins of the progress made. The whole city was en fete, and during the later hours of the day virtually all business was abandoned by those who crowded every where to witness the arrival.

Guided by skillful hands the American 'plane, which had covered the distance between the protecting destroyers along the route with clocklike regularity, swept on over Lisbon and settled down gracefully near the cruiser Rochester.

Warships Flash News of Triumph
Message Greeted With Chorus of Sirens and Bells at Azores Port

PONTA DELGADA, May 27 (By The Associated Press).- The naval seaplane NC-4, which left hero at 6:18 (New York time") this morning, has won for America the honor of the first successful flight across the Atlantic ocean.

News of its arrival in Lisbon was given to the inhabitants here. Flotilla Commander Wortmann. To him it came in a wireless message relayed from the victorious seaplane by the bridge of destroyers that spanned the 800 miles of ocean between the Azores and Portugal. This message read:

"We are safely on the other side of the pond. Crew all well."

That was all. Following it came more details of the last leg of the flight across the ocean. These told how splendidly the four Liberty engines had worked throughout the trip. They told, too, how the people of ancient Lisbon lined the banks of the historic Tagus and cheered the giant seaplane as it finally settled upon the river, how sirens shrieked and bells were rung in celebration of the remarkable victory.

The moment the news was received Admiral Jackson, ranking naval officer here, ordered all the warcraft in the harbor to blow their sirens and foghorns. The terrible noise was kept up fur fully live minutes, while the officers and seamen aboard joined their voices in the bedlam of noise.

The crew of the seaplane, which was the same as that which made the memorable flight from Newfoundland to the Azores, boarded the 'plane for the start an hour before sunrise, but it was not until several hours later that the giant machine taxied outside the breakwater, headed to windward and rose gracefully into the air. Trouble with one of the motors caused the early delay. The 'plane circled the harbor and then headed for her destination amid cheers from the sailors and soldiers who lined the decks of the ships in the harbor and the crowds on the piers, together with the shrieks of whistles from all tho steam craft within sight.

The din of the salute was kept up for several moments, the 'plane meanwhile speeding on her way and slowly disappearing in the bright eastern sky. After this start, the seaplane sent, a wireless message to Admiral Jackson, which read:

"We seem to be on our way. Many thanks for your hospitality."

Plymouth Is Excited Over Coming of NC-4
Progress of Flight of U. S. Seaplane to Lisbon is Received With Great Enthusiasm

PLYMOUTH, England, May 27 (By the Associated Press).--The news of the flight of the American navy seaplane NC-4 from Ponta Delgada to Lisbon was received with the greatest interest in Plymouth, which is to be the final destination of the big aircraft on its trip from Newfoundland to England. Wireless reports of to-day's flight, given out by the Admiralty, showing that the seaplane was making excellent progress, evoked considerable enthusiasm.

All the plans for patrolling the course of the intended flight from Lisbon to Plymouth have been arranged. 'There are to be eleven American torpedo boat destroyers between Lisbon and Plymouth, five off the Portuguese coast from Lisbon to Cape Finisterre and five between Cape Finistierre and Brest. The other boat, the U. S. S. Stockton, will bo half way between Plymouth and Brest. The Stockton, which is in port here, will not leave to take up her position until her Commander receives word that the NC-4 has departed from Lisbon.

Hoodoo Outgamed By Winning 'Plane
Victory Won After a Succession of Accidents Tested Spirit of Crew

To the NC-4, hoodoo ship of the United States Navy's giant transatlantic seaplanes, has gone the honor of the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean.

Seldom before in history has the handiwork of man gone through such a series of vicissitudes before achieving success in an epoch making endeavor as did the NC-4.

Last of the four huge seaplanes built to attempt the flight across the Atlantic, she was delivered in sections at the Rockaway Naval Air Station April 17 last, too late to be given the adequate preliminary test flights that Her sisters had received.

Scarcely had she been assembled when a disastrous fire almost ended her career. But for the prompt efforts of the overworked NC mechanics she would have been destroyed. As it was only her lower elevator was damaged.

From her more unfortunate sister ship -- the NC-2 -- this deficiency was made good and the ship was completed ready for the flight only a few hours before the time set. Then the flight was delayed for forty-eight hours by unfavorable weather.

Second Accident Occurs

On the eve of the actual start for Halifax --first leg of the transoceanic flight -- the NC-4 figured in another accident, that resulted in her being named "the hoodoo of the Nancies." This was the accident that eliminated her engineer, Chief Special Mechanic E. H. Howard, from the flight and cost him his right hand. Howard had been working on the NC boats ever since the NC-1 had been delivered to the navy, last November. He was an expert on Liberty engines and had flown in every type of naval craft equipped with them.

Then came the start, from Rockaway of the most remarkably planned flight in history, on May 8. The NC-4, together with her sister ships, the NC-3 and the NC-1, left the naval air station under perfect conditions.

For three hours and twenty minutes all went well with the three ships. Then in crept the "hoodoo" that still hung on the tail of the NC-4. A faulty oil pump brought her engines to a halt and she was compelled to land upon the surface of the sea. Even her wireless failed to function, and for a whole night, she was lost to the world.

The next morning saw her safely taxying to the naval air station at Chatham, Mass. In the mean time her two sisters had completed the flight to Halifax. Mechanics worked hard to repair the "hoodoo" ship, but the unfavorable weather which followed kept her fast at Chatham while her two sisters completed the flight to Trepassey, N. F., jumping off place for the the transatlantic flight.

Long Delayed by Gale

For days the easterly gale that held up the NC-4 continued unabated, and it looked as though the unfortunate ship would be left, behind. This appeared doubly certain when it was reported the guardships strung across the ocean were running out of fuel.

Suddenly there came a rift in the veil of her misfortunes. The gail abated, and her commander, taking ad vantage of this break in the luck started his ship for Newfoundland.

This was on May 14, after being five days weatherbound at Chatham. It had been the intention of Lieutenant Commander Read to fly direct to Trepassey N. F., in order to catch up with the waiting NC-1 and NC-3. Here again he met with bad luck, because it was found that although he made an average speed of eighty-five nautical miles an hour, the start had been too late to permit the complete trip in one day. Consequently he was compelled to land at Halifax.

The following day he was held up by unfavorable weather. In the meantime Commander John H. Towers, admiral of the transatlantic seaplane division, had given up hope of the NC-4 arriving in time, and ordered the flight to begin with the other two ships.

On May 15 the NC-4 started from Halifax for Trepassey. Before she had completed the flight the NC-1 and NC-2 had actually started on the transoceanic flight.

From this moment, however, the ill luck which had beset the NC-4 completely deserted her and descended upon her two sisters. From this moment every decision made by her commander proved to be correct, and the remainder of the flight was made, in record time against adverse weather conditions.

Naval Records of Crew Of Winning Seaplane
Best Pilots and Mechanics in Service Were Selected to Make Flight Over Atlantic

The men who completed the epoch-making flight across the Atlantic in the naval seaplanes which reached Lisbon yesterday were chosen from the best pilots in the naval service. The service records of the men are as follows:

Lieutenant Commander Albert Cushing Reed, commander of Crew No. 2, was born at Lyme, N. H., March 29, 1887, and first entered the naval service as midshipman July 8, 1913. He served for several years with the Pacific fleet in the Far East.

On June 30, 1915, he was detached for instruction in aeronautics. During the war he had commanded several naval air stations along the coast, including all on Long Island. He also was a member of the test board for heavier-than-air craft.

Lieutenant Elmer Fowler Stone was born at Livonia, N. Y., January 22, 1887, and joined the Coast Guard Service as a cadet, April 80, 1910. He was commissioned as a third lieutenant in the Revenue Cutter Service and assigned to the Onondaga June 6, 1913. He learned to fly at Pensacola, and during the war saw service as a seaplane pilot aboard the U. S. S. Huntingdon.

Lieutenant Walter Hinton was born in Van Wert, Ohio, November 10, 1888. After serving as an enlisted man he was appointed a temporary boatswain November 16, 1917, at Pensacola. He was promoted to ensign in March the following year. He served at various naval air stations, and on January 15 last flew the H-16 type of flying boat No. 839 from Rockaway to Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Va.

Ensign Charles Rodd, radio officer of Crew No. 2, was born at Cleveland September 4, 1894. He was given a provisional commission as ensign in the Naval Reserve Force August 20, 1918.

Lieutenant James L. Breese, Jr., reserve pilot of Crew No. 2, was born at Newport, R. I., July 12, 1885. He was given provisional rank of ensign November 12, 1917, and has served at various naval air stations.Hampton Roads Hampton Roads Accident dives Rhoads Chance.Hampton Roads Hampton Roads Chief Machinist's Mate E. S. Rhoads, engineer of the NC-4. obtained his chance to make the flight the very night before the famous seaplane started from Rockaway. The chance came to him through the unfortunate accident that cost Chief Special Mechanic E. H. Howard his right hand.

Howard, who had been working on the planes ever since the first one was completed, was adjusting the small dynamo propeller underneath the rear Liberty engine of the NC-4. Just as he reached up, the revolving propeller struck his wrist and severed it completely, eliminating him from the momentous flight at the eleventh hour. Rhoads was then chosen to take his place.

Rhoads is serving his second enlistment in the navy. He originally enlisted as a coal passer, and is known as one of the best enginemen in the navy. He is 28 years old, and his home is at Somerset, Penn.

Navy Log Shows Progress of NC-4

New York Tribune
Washington Bureau

WASHINGTON, May 27. --The log of the flight of the NC-4 from Ponta Delgada to Lisbon, based on cablegrams received at the Navy Department today, follows:

8:20 a. m.."NC-4 left Ponta Delgada for Lisbon at 10:18 (7:18 New York time)."
8:58 a. m.?"NC-4 passed station ship No. 1 at 11:13 (7:13 a. m. New York time)."
9:01 a. m. "8a.m.- Weather reports -- Flying conditions from Ponta Delgada to Lisbon very good. To-day fair weather and moderate to fresh southwesterly winds at flying altitude prevail over the entire course, with the barometer rising slowly. Weather clearing and wind nearly west. Favorable flying conditions should continue over Wednesday. Time filed, 8:42 Azores time (6:40 a. m. New York time),"
9:10 a. m. "NC-4 passed station ship No. 2 at 11:38 ( 7:38 a. m. New York time)."
10:10 a. m. "NC-4 passed station No. 4 at 12:54 (8:64 a. m. New York time )."
11:06 a. m. "NC-4 passed station ship No. 5 at 13:35 (9:35 a. m. New York time)."
11:07 a. m. "NC-4 passed station ship No. 6 at 14:05 (10:05 a. m. New York time)."
12:15 p. m. "NC"4 passed station ship No. 7 at 14:10 (10:40 a. m. New York time)."
12:16 p. m. "NC-4 passed station ship No. 8 at 15:16 (11:16 a. m. New York time)."
1:08 p. m."NC-4 passed station ship No. 9 at 16:18 (12:18 p. m. New York time)."
3:57 p, m. -"NC-4 passed station ship No. 12 at 18:05 (2:06 p. m. New York time)."
4:28 p. m. "NC-4 passed station ship No. 13 at 18:38 (2:38 p. m. New York time)."
4:46 p. m. "NC-4 passed station ship No. 14 at 19:16 (3:16 p. m. New York time)."

Handley-Page and Vimy 'Planes Expected To Be Ready for Test June 1

ST. JOHN'S, N. F., May 27. -- Vice Admiral Mark Kerr, with his big Handley-Page 'plane, and Captain John J. Alcock, with his Vimy bomber, expect to get away on their transatlantic flights from the same, field at Harbor Grace at the same time, it was announced here to-night. Both aircraft respectively the largest and second largest now making ready for the. "big hop," will have their first trial flight about June 1.

Work of assembling the two 'planes has progressed rapidly. The Handley Page, erected in the open at Harbor Grace, is ready for installation of its four engines, with its great l26-foot wings already "sprouting."

Captain Alcock himself is ripping open packing cases in the high-speed uncrating and assembling! of his bomber. He said to-day he would fly "light" to Harbor Grace after his craft is assembled.

The 'Vimy 'plane has five 140-gallon tanks in its body, with another barrel forming its nose. The top centre section is also a fuel receptacle, and an additional seventy-gallon tank, is designed to be emptied first in fuel consumption when the motors are started is fitted for quick release and subsequent use as a liferaft.

Destroyers on Station Since May 11 Disperse After Seaplane Passes

Fourteen United States destroyers were stationed along the course taken by the NC-4 between the Azores and Lisbon. When the seaplane had passed, the ships fell out of line and proceeded to Ponta Delgada, and after fueling will rejoin the flagship Dixie. The destroyers' names and positions were:

ShipStation No.Lat. N.Long W.
*Ships making weather reports.

The ships took their stations at sunrise of May 11 and have since been coursing on a twenty-mile radius. Their orders allowed them some freedom in movement, but at the moment that the start of the flight was flashed from vessel to vessel they were required to take their exact locations and keep them until the 'plane passed.

New  York Tribune, 28-May-1919

Was My Fault; Too Careful, Airman Tells Correspondent of Tribune
Willing to Try It Over Again
Filter Trouble Is What Caused Great Effort to Fail

The following interview with Harry G. Hawker was procured exclusively for The Tribune by a correspondent of its European bureau who travelled from Inverness to Edinburgh with the Australian airman, obtaining the first private interview granted any correspondent and the only one given any American newspaper.

By Frank W. Getty
New York Tribune
Special Cable Service
(Copyright, 1919, New York Tribune Inc.)

EDINBURG, May 27. -- The most interesting individual in the British Empire to-day sat unassumingly in his shirt sleeves in a tiny sleeping compartment last night and told me the first story of his ill-fated transatlantic voyage, beginning among the clouds at 100 miles an hour and ending in the cabin of a Danish tramp steamer at seven knots.

The whole journey from Thurso, where he landed from the Mary was one of successive vast crowd on the railroad station platforms forcing their welcome on Hawker and his navigator, Lieutenant Commander Mackenzie Grieve. Between stations Hawker spoke modestly of his attempt.

My Own Fault
No Fault of Motor

"It was our own fault -- my fault, he said, speaking of the accident which forced them to come down and risk the landing upon the open sea.

"Do you want to say that?" he was asked.

"Inasmuch as it was no fault of the motor, the fault rested with us," Hawker replied, weighing his words very carefully. "It was through being too careful."

He very ruefully laid great stress on the last six words of his reply plainly indicating his feelings. To that one fault the airman attributes the failure. "The trouble was all due to fiyting a filter in the water pipe to catch the loose pieces of solder which shook loose after seven hours' running and were invariably getting in the water pump and causing trouble. Fitting this big filter -- about a foot long -- in the pipe eliminated pump trouble, but evidently it caught and clogged up with other matter besides solder, consequently blocking the gauze in the filter.

All Because of Filter
Mistake Before Start

"In various tests I had taken out this filter, but after I had changed the radiator because the first one was too big, I decided that the new radiator meant fresh solder trouble so I put the gauze filter back. "Up to the very last minute the question of leaving the filter in was undecided. I tossed up in my own mind whether I should do so, and then finally decided -- wrongly -- to leave the filter in. But for that we would have succeeded beyond question."

That is Hawker's own story of his failure. He is anxious to get it before the public in every detail. Three times before, twice in competition for Michelin cups and once while flying in a 100-mile contest, he has lost by just such a trivial incident.

Hawker asked me to emphasize especially the fact that the fault did not lie with his motor.

Engine Running Perfectly
Up to the Finish

"The engine," he said, "was running beautifully and perfectly. It did so all the way -- it was perfect from start to finish. It was still going merrily when we finished. It should have broken up, because it was red hot."

"Given another machine to-morrow, would you make the attempt again?" I asked him.

"By all means," Hawker answered emphatically.

He was dubious about having another try, however, owing to the length of time that would be required to build a 'plane and go through the long preparations.

May Try Again

"I may make another attempt." Hawker continued. "I'll have to talk the matter over with Tom Sopwith. There are many other competitors, particularly the French, in whom I am much interested, although I know little about them as yet.

"I'm not worrying much about the Australian flight just yet. The public doesn't realize the amount of money I have lost on this flight and would have even if I had won the $50,000 prize. It took so much of my time when I could have been doing other things that it is evident I was not trying merely for the money prize, as one New York newspaper said before we started."

The Chronological Story

Here is the chronologically correct story of the flight just as Hawker told it.

"The newspapers, particularly the American newspapers, are so inaccurate that I am going to be sure that this one is right," Hawker said, as he carefully verified every paragraph before putting his final O. K. upon it. Then he began as follows:

"If the American naval seaplanes had not started then we would have waited. But with the United States machines getting away we found conditions good enough; we knew we could find more favorable weather another day, but after all it only meant about two hours difference."

Hawker put especial emphasis upon the latter point. He explained that the weather need never stop the attempted flight, however bad or stormy it might be, but would merely delay matters.

"I'll fly anything that goes -- any time," he continued. "There is no such thing as being brought down in a storm. Grieve and I will fly in any old weather."

Display of Excitement

He burst out into one of the few displays of excitement he showed. Through the rest of the interview he sat at his bunk, his arms clasped around his knees and his eyes looking off into the distance, as if vizualizing once more the voyage through the vast blue wilderness.

"It was 5:21 G. M. T. (1:21 p. m. New York time) when we took off. Ten minutes later -- when we got six or seven miles out to sea -- I dropped the undercarriage and saw it splash in the sea. It floats. It will be picked up some day. The report that it landed on rocks is untrue.

"I left the coastline in a straight line at 2,000 feet. I had climbed to that height from my starting point, four miles inland. That should interest your American friends. Some climb."

Hawker likes to get in humorous digs at Americans.

"We had just cleared the aerodrome," he went on, "when we ran into the well known Newfoundland fog banks, which covered the sea. I was climbing slowly to get above that bank -- very gradually and steadily.

Up to 12.000 Feet
When Five Hours Out

"When we were five hours out we ascended to 12,000 feet. At this time we were about five hundred miles from our starting point, and we had been making all of a hundred miles an hour since we left. A northeast wind was blowing, giving us a southerly drift off our course. We should have carried double the amount of our petrol load, but did not want it. We had a 300-mile allowance to spare as it was.

"There was a fog bank all the way. We never saw a square mile of water during the whole fifteen hours we wee flying.

"All our drift was reckoned by navigation. Commander Grieve was taking all our bearings by the sun and stars, but we had such a bad horizon for the first five hours above the fog banks that we were sent 150 miles off our course.

"The fog bank gradually thickened, and increased clouds barred our way. We passed through Occasional fog banks, and later dodged others. Twelve thousand five hundred feet was the highest altitude we reached during the journey. It did not pay to go much higher with the load we were carrying.

Engine Throttle Never
Open More Than Half

"I never had the engine throttle open more than half way, except when getting off the ground and when the crucial moment of the flight came. We had clear blue heavens which proved to be our salvation absolutely. We had sunshine the first part of the way, but. the horizon was bad, with rough clouds that prevented us from getting our bearings. It was not until the sun went down that we could find out exactly where we were. We had drifted twelve degrees off our course and, while we had known we were not right, we had not allowed sufficiently for the drift.

"We saw only one ship all the way -- naturally, for we didn't see the ocean. We saw nothing below and everything above, and that was what we wanted.

"I first noticed trouble five and a half hours out. The thermometer suddenly went up ten degrees, immediately adjusted the shields in front of the radiator to counteract that. This did not make any difference. It had been closed all the time, for the aid was cold and we had been trying to keep the engine hot.

Trouble in Filter;
Water Begins to Boil

"But it was no use. The water was going into the radiator, but wasn't circulating. We went on for an hour or two. The temperature didn't go up or down for a while then it suddenly started to rise again.

"Something was in the filter between the bottom of the radiator and the waterpumps. This chokage left only eight gallons of water in the tank on top of the plane in circulation, and this meant the the water was circulating through the motor and through the tank without going through the radiator. Then the water began to boil in the top of the tank.

"Then came the climax of the flight. Suddenly, at an altitude of 12,000 feet, we met with a great bank of thick black clouds. I tried to go over them, as we should have done, but when I opened the throttle wide to go up, the engine was red hot, and the water in the tank would have soon boiled away. So I decided to go underneath and came down to 1,000 feet before we got under the clouds. After a few more minutes we were forced down to 500 feet to get decent visibility. We were flying so low that we could not keep the motor cool, and the water was boiling fast.

It Was the Finish ;
Distress Signals Fired

"It was the finish.

"I than gave it up, and we decided to fly in a zigzag course across the main shipping route which we knew we were on. I flew first in one direction and then in another until we found a ship, and then we fired Verey lights which the Danes, while they not understand them, knew meant distress. We landed two miles ahead of the steamer to give it time to come up to us, and took plenty in doing so.

"My landing was perfect, despite the high seas. The Sopwith rode water like a duck. Grieve and I seated ourselves comfortably awaiting the rescuers who came -- husky sailors in a lifeboat. This was about 8:30 G. M. T. (4:30 a. m. New York time). The sea was very high, with half a gale running from the northeast and blowing about forty miles.

"It was with great difficulty that the steamer put off a lifeboat. Meanwhile we tossed about in the water, the cresters breaking over. I was terribly seasick. Grieve wasn't. He was used to it -- been at it since he was thirteen years old.

Had to Borrow Clothes
From Sailors on the Mary

"We couldn't save a thing, owing to the high seas, not even the small bag in which we had our clothes. We flew in watertight suits, so had to borrow others when we got aboard. Flying suits are like diver's suits, and we had to change them, too.

"Captain Dunn of the Mary spoke perfect English, and several of the crew jabbered it. The captain thought we were Americans, for he hasn't heard any news since he left New Orleans twenty days before.

"We got quite a comfortable shakedown, some sleep and something to eat at the captain's mess, for we hadn't eaten on the journey except a little chocolate, together with coffee from thermos flasks.

"We spent a very pleasant but very slow week watching hourly for some ship with wireless, but none ever came.

Very Much Disappointed;
Detail Brings Failure

"I knew they would be worrying in England about us, but we could do nothing to help it. The Mary made only eight knots an hour as her regular speed. When we passed the Butt of Lewis and signalled to the shore that we were aboard the Mary, our adventure ended.

"I was very much disappointed that such a small detail had to bring it to an end, especially, when it is realised what a big thing it meant. We did not realize fully what we had lost at first. That came after we had been picked up. Things were too exciting before that."

The train here stopped at another station, and, although it was long past midnight, the cheering crowd upon the platform stormed around the window of the compartment in which Hawker and Grieve were sitting. Holding autographs in one hand and shaking hands with his admirers with the other, the cheerful little flyer was having a harder voyage than when he was thousands of feet over the Atlantic. If he had not have been so modest he would have enjoyed it keenly.

London Goes Wild
As Hawker Arrives
Nothing Like Reception
to Two Airmen Except
Times of Coronation

LONDON, May 27 (By The Associated Press). -- Harry G. Hawker and Lieutenant Commander Mackenzie Grieve were given a remarkable reception on their arrival in London to-night from Northern Scotland, where they were landed Monday morning after their unsuccessful attempt to fly across the Atlantic Ocean from Newfoundland to Ireland in an aeroplane.

Such enthusiasm as was shown in the greeting of the two airmen probably never has been exceeded, except in the times of coronations.

The crowds began gathering early in the afternoon along the route from the railway station to the Aero Club, where Hawker and Grieve were formally welcomed on behalf of London. Throughout the afternoon, until the train with the heroes arrived, the throngs grew in numbers. When the train pulled into the station the entire line over which the procession was to pass was jammed with cheering people.

Cheers for Mrs. Hawker

A foretaste of the great welcome that the aviators were to receive came during the afternoon when Mrs. Hawker went to the railway station to proceed to Grantham to meet her husband. The throng loudly cheered the plucky little woman, who never gave up confidence that her husband ultimately would be rescued.

Arriving in London, headed by an Australian band and a body of Australian troops and a large number of automobiles. the welcoming party pushed through the densely packed streets on the way to the Aero Club. In the procession were the mayor and the councillors of St. Pancras and a deputation of the Royal Aero Club, including General Brancker, the Duke of Atholl and other famous airmen.

Another delegation in the parade, which was accompanied by a band, was composed of workers from the Sopwith works, where, the machine in which Hawker and Grieve attempted to span the ocean was constructed.

First Official Welcome

The first official welcome was accorded the airmen at the station at St. Pancras by the Mayor of that borough, but still another was given them inside the Aero Club building. After the ceremony at the Aero Club the aviators were entertained by the Sopwith workers. Like Mrs. Hawker, Mr. and Mrs. Grieve proceeded up the line and met their son and bade him welcome and congratulated him on his rescue.

In every town through which the train carrying the airmen passed to-day, crowds of people gathered to cheer them. Wherever the train stopped official receptions were extended the heroes by the Mayors and corporations.

Asked whether he would make another attempt to fly across the Atlantic. Hawker said to-night:

"I don't know. It depends upon the Sopwith firm."

A series of entertainments, including many luncheons and dinners, have been (something missing - JT)

Greater Than Royal Reception

The reception of Hawker and Grieve at the King's Cross station excelled in popular demonstrations anything given any genera! or member of a royal family during the war.

It was particularly an Australian occasion. There were thousands of Australian soldiers in and around the station, accompanied by their bands, as the train pulled in. There was continuous singing of "Australia Will Be There" and the peculiar cries of the Australian bushmen.

The Mayor of St. Pancras and the councillors in their official robes and with the huge gilt mace of the borough officially welcomed the aviators. In the background were many generals, members of the House of Commons and British. French, American and other aviators.

After the reception the Austrian soldiers lifted Hawker and Grieve on their shoulders and carried them to their motor cars. Hawker was plainly nervous as he sat in his car, dressed in a blue suit. Beads of perspiration were to be seen on his brow. Mrs. Hawker and Grieve followed Hawker in succeeding cars.

Hawker Took Chance
On Hopeful Weather
To Beat Americans

LONDON, May 28 (By The Associated Press). -- In a further statement made to "The Daily Mail's" correspondent at Edinburgh Tuesday, Harry G. Hawker said regarding his attempt to cross the Atlantic:

"We started because the weather was better and the moon was dying fast, and if we had not started then we might have missed the chance of being first across.

"The Americans were off. They were very serious propositions. They had one leg to go. and we had one to go. We knew that one American machine had reached the Azores, and reports came that all three were there. That was very serious, and we had decided overnight with Captain Raynham, who was to attempt, the flight from St. John's in a Martinsyde machine, that we would start if the weather was at all hopeful.

"As a matter of fact, we went away on fewer weather reports than we had any day previously. It was a splendid get-off much better than we had expected.

"We passed over Quidividi at 2.000 feet, being six miles from the airdrome in a straight line. A jolly good climb with that load. We saw Raynham ad his machine surrounded by a crowd, and kissed him goodby."

Aero Convention
Is Wild for Joy

Special Correspondence

ATLANTIC CITY, May 27. -- News of to the second Pan-American Aeronautic Convention, caused an uproar of enthusiasm. Delegates used guns on exhibition at the convention to fire salutes in honor of the achievement, and Mayor Harry Bacharach ordered the fire bells rung and sirens whistled. Rockets swept over the beach front, and then Eddie Stinson, of New York, led a squadron of airplanes from the Airport for a spectacular illuminated dash across the sky. A salvo of twenty-one guns was fired from the heavy Remington quick-firing gun that is a part of the aero exhibit on the pier.

As soon as he received the news, President Alan R. Hawley. of the Aero Club of America, called a meeting of the executive committee of the club and a few minutes later it was announced the gold medal of the club had been awarded to Lieutenant Commander Read and the medal of merit to members of his crew.

Hawker's 'Plane Found
By Ship in Mid-Ocean

ST. JOHN'S, N. F., May 27. -- The Sopwith biplane in which Harry Hawker and Mackenzie Grieve attempted to fly across the Atlantic was picked up in latitude 49.40 north, longitude 29.08 west, by the American ship Lake Charlottesville, according to a radio message received by the Furness liner Sachem and relayed here to-night.

Dashiell Hammett 125 -- May 27, 2019

125 years ago today, on 27-May-1894, Samuel Dashiell Hammett was born in Maryland. In 1915 he went to work for the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. He left Pinkerton to serve in the Army during World War One. He did not see combat, but he did contract a case of tuberculosis. After his discharge from the Army and the sanitarium, he returned to Pinkerton, working in the San Francisco office, in the Flood Building at Powell and Market, but after a while his health forced him to quit.

He took up writing and supported himself by writing advertising copy for the Albert S Samuels Company, a jewelry store. Some sources claim that Hammett coined their slogan, "The house of lucky wedding rings," but Samuels' website says they started using it when the business opened in 1891. My wife and I bought our wedding rings there.

He wrote many classic hard-boiled detective stories and novels.  Many were published in Black Mask, a pulp magazine.

Hammett left San Francisco and went to Hollywood, where he worked as a screenwriter and pursued his interest in drinking. At some point he began a long-term affair with writer c, which provided some of the inspiration for his last completed novel, The Thin Man. Money from movies based on The Thin Man and radio shows based on it, on Sam Spade, and an original series called The Fat Man, provided Hammett with enough money that he didn't have to write to live.

When World War II broke out, Hammett again volunteered for the army. Despite his age and his lingering health problems, he served honorably during the war. When the Red Scare broke out after the war, Hammett, a liberal who had once belonged the Communist Party USA, became a target. His radio shows were cancelled. He eventually went to prison because he refused to name names. His health broken, he died a few years later.

Samuel D Hammett, veteran of World War I and World War II, is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

America's Great Seashore Resort -- May 23, 2019
A Pennsylvania Railroad poster invites people to visit Atlantic City.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

New Orleans -- Delta Air Lines -- May 21, 2019
A Delta Air Lines poster invites people to visit New Orleans to see Mardi Gras and hear some jazz.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

The Transatlantic Race -- May 19, 2019

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919
Australian Harry Hawker, who had been chief test pilot and designer at Sopwith, along with navigator Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve, took off from Newfoundland in a Sopwith Atlantic on 18-May-1919 and promptly disappeared. Tune in later to find out what happened. Meanwhile, the US Navy's NC-4 had reached the Azores. NC-1 had to land on the ocean and a ship rescued its crew. NC-3, the flagship, was missing. The other British team, flying a Martinsyde airplane, crashed on takeoff.  

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919

British Fliers Call Own Trip More Perilous
Express Admiration for the American Triumph, but Say Element of Danger Virtually Was Lacking
New York Tribune Spcial Cable Service
(Copyright. 1919, New York Tribune Inc.)

ST. JOHN'S, N. F., May 18. -- Before they took the air this afternoon Harry G. Hawker, of the Sopwith biplane, and Captain Frederick P. Raynham, of the Martinsyde machine, discussed the successful flight of the American NC 'planes to the Azores. Their remarks embodied admiration for the American enterprise, but conveyed the idea that they regarded their own venture as far more hazardous.

The two British fliers have followed with interest the reports of the progress of the United States seaplanes and spoke warmly of the spirit of the crews manning them. At the same time, however, they contended that no comparison could fairly be drawn between the American venture and their own attempt at a direct flight to Ireland in singled-engined machines.

Only Covered Half Distance

They said, first, the American seaplane crews have to make only half the distance at a jump which the trip to the British Isles involves, and the generous distribution of American naval ships along the route robs the flight of any substantial element of personal danger. They argued that this greatly helped the morale of the airmen and also assured them facilities for repairing their machines, which enjoy the further advantage of being able to land on the face of the ocean to rest and refit.

They contended that three machines flying in concert are able to assist each other in event of mishap and this contributes much toward maintaining the spirit among the airmen which is a large factor in insuring success. They said also that in event of any sudden change of weather the seaplane crews could descend to the nearest guardship and await cessation of the storm or abandon the voyage entirely if they thought it necessary, and also could call to their aid in event of any mishap these or other ships which might be in the vicinity.

British Have No Safeguards

On the other hand, the British airmen said, their own venture was something entirely different. They said this without egotism, arguing merely that facts justify this contention. They held that their attempt at a 2,000-mile flight over the ocean, with no safeguards whatever, defies comparison. They argued that flying across the Atlantic without facilities for landing on the ocean or ships for making repairs involves a strain on the fibre and physical stamina of the airmen from which the Americans were virtually free.

They emphasized the fact that if any mishap befalls them they are powerless to save themselves, and that they lack wireless to summon aid, so unless some ship happens to be in their immediate vicinity they are lost beyond recall. They cheerfully agreed that the American fliers showed splendid qualities in their undertaking, and the fact of their getting through without requiring to descend to either the ocean surface or to any guardship is evidence that the machines were in splendid condition and well handled. They are probably equal to a longer flight, and even to a flight from St. John's to the Irish coast, the British airmen said.

They contended they are proposing a flight through an area much further north and far more stormy than the route the Americans took; that ships along the route are fewer and the chances of rescue less, and that, whereas the American machines can make certain forms of repairs while in flight, the least accident to the British 'planes means ruin.

Martinsyde Plane Wrecked in "Take Off"; Crew Hurt, but Not Seriously
Start Watched As Death Trip
Spectators in Fear That Daring Flier Goes to His Doom

ST. JOHN'S, N. F., May 19. -- Up to 4 o'clock this morning no word had been received from Harry G. Hawker, the Australian flier, since he started on his transatlantic flight. Weather reports from the Atlantic were favorable and indicated improvement in some of the storm areas.

If Hawker's estimated speed of 100 miles an hour were maintained, he would have been more than 1,400 miles out at 4 o'clock this morning, or about three-fourths of the way to Ireland.

ST. JOHN'S. N. F., May 18. -- Into the jaws of almost certain death, Harry G. Hawker, the famous Australian aviator, drove his slender Sopwith biplane over the eastern horizon at 1:45 o'clock, New York time, this afternoon, in an effort to win for the British glory of the first transatlantic flight. He hopes to reach Ireland before the American NC planes can effect a crossing at Lisbon.

With him as navigator went Lieutenant Commander Mackenzie Grieve of the British navy, whose task it will be to guide the tiny plane in a true line over the 1,900-mile course that separates Newfoundland from the shores of Ireland. They expect to make the flight in nineteen hours.

Just as the Sopwith machine flashed across the Martinsyde hangar in a terrific burst of speed, Captain Frederick P. Raynham and his one-legged hero navigator, Major C. W. F. Morgan, rivals of the Sopwith team, started up their machine to race across the ocean.

Martinsyde Plane Wrecked

As the Martinsyde biplane, even tinier than the Sopwith, started across the ground the axle of the landing carriage snapped, wrecking the machine and injuring both men, but apparently not seriously. Captain Raynham collapsed immediately after the crash, but later recovered.

Hawker had his machine in readiness shortly after 1 o'clock at the Mount Pearl aerodrome. The weather conditions were ideal, with a clear sky and a slight northwest wind, which will greatly favor the machine.

The biplane took the air after a short run across the field exactly at 17:45 Greenwich mean time (1:45 p.m. New York time). Hawker maneuvered in circles until he attained the desired altitude, and then, opening the throttle of his engine, he headed at tremendous speed for this city, five miles away.

The machine passed directly over St. John's and over the Quidividi aerodrome, where the Martinsyde biplane was being prepared, across the hills in the distance and quickly disappeared from view. Ten minutes later the signal station on top of the hill reported the machine had passed from view.

Landing Carriage Dropped

Just after passing the Quidividi field, Hawker released the landing gear of his machine, which dropped into the sea, in full sight of the thousands of people at the Martinsyde aerodrome watching Captain Raynham. Hawker hoped by doing this to lighten and accelerate the natural speed of his machine from 100 to 106 miles an hour.

Hawker's start was made in face of weather conditions which he characterized as "not yet favorable, but possible." He and his navigator considered the hazards of the attempt and decided to stake everything on an effort to "beat the Americans."

Overnight reports to the meteorological station had showed increased atmospheric pressures, smoother seas and fair barometer conditions. Although winds and pressures were not all they hoped for. Hawker and Grieve ordered their hand satchels packed and made ready for the start.

Hawker considered weight as of utmost importance. Lifting Mackenzie Grieve's bag, he found it heavy, and inquired solicitously if he couldn't "dispense with pajamas" on the trip. When asked if he thought he would have a chance to sleep during the voyage Hawker replied:

"We'll have a long sleep coming at the end of it."

Hawker and Grieve, in their eleventh-hour effort to wrest transatlantic flight honors ?rom the United States naval 'planes, are flying over a course all their own, figured out last night and this morning with the one object in mind of "how to head off the Americans."

As soon as they had finished breakfast this morning, Hawker and Grieve hurried to the offices of the Royal Air Force meteorologists. Finding conditions improved a little, though not as favorable as they would have demanded had not the Americans been well started on their passage, they went direct to the Mount Pearl plateau, where the Sopwith was waiting in the airdrome, and began preparation for the flight.

They were wholly calm at the start. Methodically, and without the slightest trace of nervousness, they climbed aboard their craft and set to work dispassionately- Hawker's confidence in his navigator and in his engine were absolute, he said quietly.

Opens Throttle to Full

After a preliminary spin of the motor Hawker opened his throttle to the full and the ground crew were forced to call for help to hold the 'plane in place. Hawker throttled "down" again, said a few final words, and then gave the word to knock out the supporting blocks from beneath the craft as he opened wide the throttle.

Hawker followed his announced intention when he dropped the undercarriage of his 'plane. Some persons thought the act was intended as a challenge to his rival, Raynham, and quoted almost the last word of Hawker before he started.

"How about old 'Tinsides?' Tell Raynham I'll greet him at Brooklands, England."

The wireless sent word of Raynham's mishap to Hawker and Mackenzie Grieve after they had put to sea. Opinion here is that one result of the message will be the cutting down of Hawker's speed, as the Sopwith will not be forced to racing speed now that its rival has been eliminated from the overseas contest.

Have Aid of Sun

At the start the sun was only a little over two hours beyond the meridian. The flying adventurers had its aid in navigating for four or five hours as they sped eastward. After that they plunged into darkness over the ocean, with the prospect of starlight and moonlight to break the monotony of sky and sea at night, and to serve as navigation guides.

Mackenzie Grieve declared before the start that the Sopwith would head straight for Ireland.

"If we strike Ireland anywhere we will have found our mark." he said, "but If we hit England we will be nearer home."

Indications to-night were that westerly winds would favor the fliers for the first 1,000 miles of their course. The remainder of the way will be "ticklish" sailing, and it is thought possible that Grieve will have to "bend" his course somewhat south to avoid wind and weather dangers.

A large part of Grieves's work will be in noting observations of air currents encountered.

'Although Atlantic air currents can never be marked," he said, "I hope to compile observations that will make the transatlantic passage possible with fewer uncertainties for later fliers than those which confront pioneers on the trackless way.

"We are relying chiefly on astronomical positions which we plan to obtain by use of the sextant, getting an hourly sun altitude in the daytime and working with the North Star at night. Should thick weather obscure the sky we are prepared to use the clouds for calculating purposes, although we admit the results would be only approximate."

Not more than sixty people were present to witness the departure of the intrepid airmen and these were chiefly competitors, aviators and newspapermen. Among them were Rear Admiral Mark Kerr, of the British navy, who is to navigate the giant Handley-Page machine in its transatlantic attempt, and his pilot, Major Brackley of the British Air Force.

Captain Alcock and Lieutenant Brown, who are to pilot the Vickers Vimy bomber now on its way here aboard the steamship Glendevon, also witnessed the start. All loudly praised the manner in which Hawker handled the Sopwith in his take off. Concentrated rations are being carried on the Sopwith for food. The fuel supply was 340 gallons of gasolene.

Wind Blamed for Wreck

A big factor in the accident to Raynham's Martinsyde 'plane was said to a lack of full wind opposition. He was trying to "take off" on his east and west field with a wind exactly north east. Full head wind is declared to be essential for a rise with a 'plane as heavily laden as Raynham's.

The weight of the plane was near three tons, and the great "heft" of is believed to have brought it down after a rise of a few feet had been gained. The undercarriage was admittedly weak, and collapsed under the strain. Had Raynham been able to fly directly into the wind he probably would have attained flying speed before the axle buckled.

Missed by Twenty-five Yards

Raynham would not add to the statement he made to friends immediately after he had recovered from the temporary collapse he suffered when his craft broke down. This statement was:

"I was just beginning to get a lift. I felt the under carriage weaken, and pulled back on the control stick in an attempt to assist the machine clear of the ground. But the propeller struck and we spilled. Another twenty-five yards and we would have been away."

Hawker had provided against such a mishap by installing an all-steel under-carriage on the Sopwith for safety in "taking off" and a device for dropping it when well off the ground. Hawker also had installed a detachable primer and band starting magneto, both of which were left behind when he dropped his under-carriage.

After Hawker dropped his under-carriage his machine was left without any landing gear at all, and should he be successful in crossing the Atlantic, he must risk crashing his machine when landing.

Small steel rails or skids had been provided to help lessen the danger, with which it is hoped the machine may glide along the ground and come to a stop.

There is believed to be but one chance in a thousand that the speedy Sopwith biplane may make the flight successfully, but to insure that once chance every mechanical and meteorological detail must be in favor of the airmen and their machine.

Small Lifeboat Attached

When Hawker and his aide took their places in the small fuselage of the plane they were incased in full-length, non-sinkable suits. This, together with the ingeniously constructed lifeboat which forms part of the cowling of the fuselage, is their only means of immediate safety should they be compelled to alight on the ocean in the course of their flight.

This boat is said to possess a considerable degree of seaworthiness and is fitted with provisions and signaling devices. In case he alights on land, Hawker had early arranged to release and drop the boat by means of an automatic device controlled by a button near the pilot's seat.

Unlike the huge seaplanes of the American Navy which flew from Trepassey to the Azores on Friday last the Sopwith machine is a purely land type of airplane. It has no pontoon to keep it afloat or permit of its being towed in case it is compelled to alight on the ocean. It is a small biplane of the scout type with a wing spread of only forty-six feet, and an overall length of thirty-one feet. It is driven forward by a Twelve-cylinder Rolls Royce 375-horsepower engine, fitted with a quadruple ignition system.

Depends on 19-Hour Flight

Hawker expected his machine to make an average speed of 100 miles an hour at the start, which be hoped would be accelerated to 106 miles as soon as he released the under-carriage of the machine. A favorable wind might increase this speed. All his calculations, however, were based on nineteen-hour flight for the 1,900 mile to Ireland.

Hawker and his companion, Grieve, are making their flight as contenders for "The London Daily Mail's" prize of $50,000 to the first successful aviator who flies across the Atlantic while observing the rules of the contest. Under these rules the flight must be completed within seventy-two hours of the start, and if the machine is compelled to alight on the water it may get off again unassisted.

Commander Grieve announced his intention of flying straight out to sea for a distance of 600 miles and then heading the machine into the regular transatlantic steamship lane. The fliers expect to land in the Brooklands aerodrome just outside of London.

Navigate by Sextant

Grieve will depend entirely upon his sextant and compass for navigating the machine for use with which the 'plane carries specially tabulated calculations drawn up before the start.

Heading east into the night they expect to meet the sun on its westward path at a time to give them a good observation for their course to approach the Irish coast, an well as to determine their exact position.

During the night Grieve said he would "shoot the stars" every two hours to obtain the position of the biplane and keep it on its course. Hawker expected to fly at an average altitude of 8,000 feet, although he said the atmospheric conditions during the flight would be the determining factor in this matter.

The romantic aspect of the adventurous flight attracted the people of St. John's to the hangar for the takeoff. While all expressed admiration for the airmen, fear was expressed on all sides that the pair were riding to certain death in defying the ocean in so frail a craft.

The unknown fate which overtook Andre when he set out in a free balloon to float over the North Pole several years ago was present in the minds of all, as was also Major Wood's disastrous start from England in a Short biplane a few weeks ago. While Major Wood was fortunate in being rescued, it was chiefly due to the fact that his machine fell into the sea so close to land. The chances of Hawker in case of engine trouble are not nearly so good.

Many Air Prizes Won by Hawker
Over-Atlantic Dash is Climax of Notable Career of Australian

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919
Harry G. Hawker, chief of the Sopwith team that flew yesterday for Ireland, is an Australian, 27 years old, who has won fame in the development of aviation. He was one of the few mechanics who rose to the rank of flier under the tutelage of Tom Sopwith, the famous British aviator, since turned manufacturer.

Yesterday's attempt to cross the Atlantic, with its probability of disaster and death for the fliers, was but an incident in the checkered career of Hawker.

Hawker is known throughout the British empire as the man who refuses to fly by the rules of others. He is credited with making his own, defying custom, and usually, at least, accomplishing his purpose. Practically every autograph hunter in the British isles, chiefly among the feminine signature hunters, has his name between the covers of an album.

Hawker first attained world fame, when in August, 1913, he attempted to win the $25,000 prize offered by "The Daily Mail" to the first aviator to encircle the British isles in a hydroplane. The flight was to have been made in seventy-two hours.

The daring aviator ascended from Oban at 6:40 o'clock in the morning before as great a crowd of spectators as ever had witnessed a flight there. He traversed 1,043 of the 1,540-mile course, remained in the air for seven hours and then fell into the sea because of engine trouble. But he broke several records and no bones by so doing, and the judges decided he had accomplished almost as much for aviation by his efforts as if he had completed the trip about the islands.

"The London Daily Mail" agreed to give him a consolation prize of $5,000 for his pains and he was awarded a medal by a group of aviators, who complimented him upon his service to the science of flying.

In competition with the greatest aviators in Europe, Hawker won the British Michelin prize for continuous flight. He created what in 1912 was a new record by remaining in the air for eight hours and twenty-three minutes.

He has made scores of long distance flights in Europe. He made two new world records for long distance. Also he won a prize offered by an aviation organization in London in 1916 for hanging up a new world's record for altitude. He reached an altitude of 28,500 feet under an official test.

Martinsyde Mishap Not Unexpected
Experts Always Doubted Whether Small 'Plane Would Cross in Safety

Neither of the Martinsyde fliers whose machine was smashed at the start yesterday, set out on their adventure with eyes closed to the danger that confronted them. That they escaped with as slight injuries as early dispatches indicate came more as a surprise to those who had watched the flight than otherwise.

Before Captain F. P. Raynham and Captain Morgan took to the clouds or as near to them as they got yesterday, wagers were being made as to their ability to negotiate the trip or any part of it without the loss of life of at least one of the two. The odds always were in favor of death rather than the survival of the fliers.

A dispatch to The Tribune April 1 said:

"Spectators believe the chances of the Martinsyde men escaping death arw very slight, owing to the smallness of their machine, the lack of a boat or other life saving apparatus and the strain on the occupants during the long journey."

But Raynham, who had faced death in many forms so often as to have become contemptuous of it, belittled these pessimistic forecasts of disaster. He said the dangers of flying over water were not as great as those of flying over land, that he had remained in the air longer while flying over land than would be required on this voyage and that he had a feeling that he would make the flight without difficulty.

"If we fall in the water there is not the danger of being dashed to pieces that always confronts one in a fall on the ground," he said. "Besides our rubber suits should serve to save us if we fall into the water any distance from the boats."

Navy Confidence in Safety of Flagship Ebbs as Perilous Gale Sweeps Sea
Lost 40 Hours Without Trace
Huge Screen of Warships Swings in Half Circle to Aid

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919

LONDON. May 18. -- Lloyds reports the steamship Iona with the crcew of the American seaplane NC-1 aboard, arrived at Horta Sunday, and that the NC-1 sank 120 miles off the Island of Flores.

WASHINGTON, May 18. -- Apprehension as to the safety of Commander John H. Towers and his crew of four men, who in the seaplane NC-3 have been lost at sea for more than forty hours, had begun to-night to displace the feeling of confidence among naval officials that the transatlantic fliers would be found by searching vessels. No word had been received from the NC-3 since 5:15 o'clock yesterday morning, when Commander Towers reported that his 'plane, the flagship of the squadron, was off her course some 300 miles from the Island of Fayal, Azores. Dispatches from Rear Admiral Jackson, aboard the U. S. S. Melville at Ponta Delgada, Azores, to-night said a gale was sweeping the seas northwest of the Azores and that high waves were running.

The navy, with its vast force of vessels, concentrated to aid in the transatlantic attempt, was bending all of its energies to the finding of the lost fliers.

Two battleships, the Florida and Texas, and nearly a score of destroyers were scouring the sea over a wide area all day to-day and to-night.

Dangerous Gale Rises

The fog which, it is supposed, forced the NC-1 to the open sea when within a few short miles of Corvo Headland, the objective point of the aerial argonauts, had been dissipated by strong westerly winds this morning which increased to a gale by 9 a. m, and whipped up a nasty, choppy sea, the most dangerous condition possible for a seaplane riding on the surface of the ocean.

Messages received from Rear Admiral Jackson late to-night telling of the damage to the NC-1 caused by the heavy seas running at the time the 'plane was found served to increase the apprehension felt for the safety of the crew of the NC-3. The lower 'planes of the NC-1 were badly damaged, one pontoon was entirely carried away, the right wing was badly broken, the left wing ribs were damaged and the elevators were smashed.

Naval vessels standing by in an effort to salvage the big boat reported that the seas were running so high if was impossible to save it at this time. It was pointed out that only good fortune could possibly save the NC-3 from even more serious damage, since it is handicapped by the extra weight of its crew.

Rescue Work Difficult

Using Corvo Island as an operating base, the screen of battleships and destroyers were sweeping westward in a great semicircle in an effort to catch sight of the NC-3 or pick up radio distress signals. The high winds and heavy seas prevailing made the work of the rescue party most difficult.

The main element of hope in the situation, as viewed by naval officials tonight, was the fact that the weather forecasts predict diminishing winds and abated seas late in the night and Monday morning. It was thought that if Commander Towers's frail craft could ride out the gale successfully until morning the probability of rescue would be greatly increased, since a veritable swarm of destroyers and other naval craft, gathered from wide distances, were being concentrated over the area to the northwest of the Azores.

Each of the seaplanes carried sufficient food ant1 water for six days when the squadron left Trepassey Bay. The condition in which the NC-1 was found was described in the following message to the Navy Department from the cruiser Columbia:

"NC-1 right wing badly broken, pontoon carried away, elevators broken, fabric left wing ribs badly damaged. Condition of sea too rough to salvage 'plane. Fairfax standing by awaiting better conditions. Crew of NC-1 in good shape, now on Columbia. NC-4 in good condition and awaiting favorable weather before proceeding to Ponta Delgada. Scouting lines scouting to westward for NC-3. Strong northwesterly wind and rough seas prevailing."

The members of the crew of NC-3 in addition to Commander Towers are:
Commander H. C. Richardson, Lieutenant D. N. McCulloch, Lieutenant Commander R. A. Lavender and Machinist L. R. Moore.

British Ministry Reports Sky Clear

LONDON. May 18. -- Meteorological conditions favorable for a continuation of the transatlantic flight of the American naval seaplane NC-4 from the Azores to Lisbon are reported by the Air Ministry to-day. The statement says:

"Conditions generally are favorable for continuing the flight to Lisbon. The barometric pressure is falling somewhat in the Azores. There is mist at Ponta Delgada, but the winds are light and westerly.

"Conditions on the direct Atlantic route are improving."

PONTA DELGADA, May 18 (By The Associated Press). -- The NC-4, which arrived safely at Horta Saturday morning, reported that, the weather there early to-day was unfavorable for a continuation of the flight to Ponta Delgada.

At 11:15 o'clock this morning nothing had yet been heard from the NC-3, reported lost in the fog off Fayal.

The cruiser Columbia at Horta, Fayal, reported shortly after noon that she had intercepted messages passing between destroyers to the effect that the missing seaplane NC-3 had been forced to alight between Stations 17 and 18, where the seaplane was last heard from at. 9:15 o'clock. Greenwich time, Saturday morning. The Columbia reported that destroyers were searching for the flagship of the seaplane fleet.

A wireless message from the destroyer Harding said the destroyer Fairfax was towing the NC-1 into Horta. The crew of the NC-1, headed by Lieutenant-Commander Bellinger, are expected at Horta to-night on the steamship Ionia, which rescued them ninety-five miles west of Fayal.

The NC-1 was found by the Harding thirty miles from the point where the crew abandoned it at 10 o'clock Sunday morning. The Harding reported the right wing and one pontoon of the NC-1 were damaged and that a propeller had been broken.

The steamship Ionia is probably the Greek ship of that name. It left New York May 4 for Norfolk. Arriving at Norfolk May 6, the Ionia departed the same day for Gibraltar and would have been in the path of the transatlantic flight.

British Bow to U. S. Fliers; Pity Own Men
Grahame - White Says Flight to Azores Is Object Lesson to Admiralty

LONDON, May 18 (By The Associated Press). -- Claude Grahame-White, the aviator, although not unduly surprised that the Americans succeeded in accomplishing the most dangerous part of the transatlantic flight, say he is thoroughly delighted with the great enterprise shown. He says that the flight is an object lesson to the British authorities because, as far as the British machines are concerned, the flight means life or death, as there is no chain of destroyers to pick them up if they meet with an accident.

J. A. Whitehead, managing director of the Whitehead Aircraft Company, says that irrespective of nationality the great feat of crossing nearly 1,100 miles of open sea marks a tremendous era in the progress of aviation. The Americans, he says, had the advantage of a patrolled course and, therefore, the probabilities of life and death did not enter into their calculations as they must with the British aviators.

The American flight was a good one in the opinion of Colonel V. L. Henderson, a pilot and member of the House of Commons for Glasgow, but with a trail of destroyers was comparatively easy and without risk to the airmen. He added:

"It makes one sad to think our men should have so little practical assistance from the Air Ministry. Even the Americans admit our men are as good as theirs. There is no doubt our machines are better."

G. Hold Thomas, an authority on aeronautics and who was identified with several flying feats some years ago, attributes the American success to "organization" and "national effort." He added that criticism of the Admiralty is not helping the British contestants. He said his suggestion that destroyers or even captured German submarines be placed along the route from Newfoundland to Ireland met with the response: "The expense, is too enormous."

Mrs. Hawker, wife of Harry Hawker, the Australian aviator, said: "Our boys have had no help at all. Even the weather reports are unsatisfactory."

Lt. Parsons Doubts Sea Trade in Air
Pranks of Ocean Must Be Tamed First He Says;
Praises NC's Exploits

The feat accomplished by the NC-4 in its successful flight from America to the Azores will go down in history as one of the most daring exploits of the air, but it is extravagant to think it opens new vistas for commercial ocean flying, in the opinion of Lieutenant E. C. Parsons, a noted aviator, who passed three years at the front and has fifteen German machines to his credit.

Lieutenant Parsons joined the Lafayette Escadrille in 1915 and became a member of the Guynemer flying corps when the former organization joined the American flying forces. He wears two French and two Belgian decorations. When seen at the American Flying Club. 297 Madison Avenue, yesterday, he differed with Major Thomas S. Baldwin, who declared in The Tribune yesterday that the achievement of the NC-4 marks the beginning of ocean travel by air on a large scale.

"I regard the feat of the NC-4 as possibly the most remarkable flying exploit in the history of aviation," he said. It was, however, a combination of daring, good luck and careful preparation. Without the lane of American destroyers it is questionable whether I the feat would have been accomplished.

"As far as making airplanes for passenger and freight, carrying is concerned, that is quite without the bounds of probability. I understand that hundreds of thousands of dollars have been expended by the Navy Department in preparation for the flights of the NC machines. The cost is too great to make the use of airplanes across the ocean for commercial purposes profitable."

Sees Future for "Blimps"

Lieutenant Parsons was of the opinion that lighter than air machines stand a much better chance of becoming ocean carriers than heavier than air craft. He believes the "blimp" balloons eventually may be perfected to permit their use in passenger travel across the Atlantic.

Lieutenant Parsons thinks the attempt of Harry Hawker, the British aviator, to cross the Atlantic is "nothing short of suicidal."

"If Hawker succeeds," he said, "he will have accomplished something in the way of daring which no human being ever achieved. But frankly I do not see how he can do it. He has none of the protective and guiding features of our NC 'planes and dropped his wheels when he left Newfoundland.

Even if he should succeed in crossing he will have a pretty tough time of it in landing on the Irish coast. It is the most devilish-daring thing any aviator ever attempted."

Air Route Maps Over Sea Needed

Now that aero flights have been extended over the Atlantic distance and with an ease which seems to assure future flights over seas in all directions, aeronauts are considering two important projects: mapping of aerial routes over the ocean, as they are now being mapped over land, and establishment of landing fields with special reference to convenience of outbound and incoming transoceanic aircraft.

To the average landlubber the sky may seem sufficiently clear of obstacles to need no special road marking. It used to be the feeling of the early aeronaut that once in the sky he needed no guide posts, but could fly in any direction with complete freedom.

Although this remains true in a sense, it has been found convenient and practical to map out air routes which are just as definite as ocean routes for steamships. It was found that if aeroplanes were to travel long distances and land without loss of time well mapped routes would have to be provided and regular supply stations established.

41,058 Miles of Sky Roads

The work of mapping the routes for the United States army was intrusted to Captain Archie Miller, of the Division of Military Aeronautics, whose work comprised the projected laying out of 44,0S8 miles of sky roadways. More than 75 per cent of this work already has been accomplished.

As flying over the ocean, accelerated by the success of the flight to the Azores, is extended, it will be necessary, in the opinion of experts, to map the routes over the ocean just as they are now being mapped over the land.

Landing Places Essential

First consideration will be given to distance; aerial routes will be selected with special reference to the nearness of land points between which the flights are to be made. Then will come the question of providing possible landings in midocean. It would not be practicable to mark each air route with a line of warships, as was done in the case of the United States naval 'planes.

Aeronauts believe ocean flying will develop non-stop flying and that in a short time a flight from New York to any part of Europe will not be considered unusual. But meantime, to protect the fliers and to help develop non- stop flying, some means must be found to extend help to any machine the might have to come to the surface of the water in midocean because of mishap.

It has been proposed that one transoceanic air route be mapped out as an experiment, probably the route from Newfoundland to the Azores. The idea is to mark the route with floating stations where supplies of oil, gas and j airplane parts may be had. Scientific data from the men who are now flying the Atlantic will be awaited to determine whether the weather and air conditions over this route warrant its being selected as a permanent air roadway.