Thursday, June 17, 2021

Ready With the Bottled Goods -- June 17, 2021


Lubbock Avalanche, 30-June-1921

The Lubbock Creamery had an interesting variety of sodas that they were ready to put in "a car load of empty bottles." I like Orange Crush. I didn't know it went back that far. Delware Punch sounds interesting.

Tuesday, June 15, 2021

Coca-Cola -- Every Little Movement Means More Thirst -- June 15, 2021


Imperial Valley Press, 17-June-1921

Two Coca-Cola ads to enjoy as we move towards the summer. The gentleman above seems to be working up a sweat starting his automobile with a hand crank. I like the checked trousers on the gentleman below. 

New York Evening World, 28-June-1921

Monday, June 14, 2021

California Republic Proclaimed 175 -- June 14, 2021

June 14 is Flag Day and it is also the 175th anniversary of the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt, in Sonoma, where foreigners, mostly American and some Californios, led by William B Ide rose up against the Mexican government of California and declared a California Republic. Some time around this date, William L Todd, nephew of Mary Todd Lincoln, created the original Bear Flag, which the rebels raised on a flagpole in the Sonoma Plaza on 15-June-1846. 

The California Republic faded away when the rebels learned that the United States had declared war on Mexico in June. The original Bear Flag burned in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire in San Francisco. The California state flag is based on the Bear Flag.

I took the photo of the second Bear Flag monument in Sonoma Plaza on 08-April-2010. I have not been able to find the name of the sculptor.

Flag Day 2021 -- June 14, 2021

Happy Flag Day, everyone. 

Here we see Captain Marvel leading the Marines ashore in an amphibious assault on a South Pacific island. He proudly carries a really big flag. 

Captain Marvel, the Big Red Cheese, made his debut in Whiz Comics #2, published by Fawcett. Fawcett had earlier published the humor magazine Captain Billy's Whiz Bang. The Captain was Billy Batson, a boy who worked for radio station WHIZ. An ancient wizard gave him the ability to become adult Captain Marvel by saying the word "SHAZAM." Captain Marvel, often drawn by CC Beck, was Superman's greatest competitor until National Periodicals (DC) won a lawsuit alleging that Captain Marvel infringed on Superman's copyright. At the same time, most superhero titles were dead or declining. DC revived Captain Marvel in the 1970s.

Sunday, June 13, 2021

Pulp -- Doc Savage -- June 13, 2021

Tomorrow is Flag Day, so I thought I would post the cover of the July, 1942 issue of Doc Savage.

Doc Savage was a pulp character who debuted in 1933. Doctor Clark Savage, Jr was a many of many talents, mental and physical. He gathered a team of aides including Monk, Ham, Johnny, Renny and Long Tom. Each had his own unique talents. His cousin Patricia turned up in many stories. Doc and his team had many adventures fighting evil around the world. Lester Dent created the characters and wrote many of the novels.

I first got to know Doc Savage from reprints that Bantam Books did in the 1970s. I often spent what little money I had at Canterbury Corner on Geary or Green Apple Books on Clement buying copies.

George Pal produced a bad movie in 1975. I saw a still in Famous Monsters of Filmland and immediately knew that they had done a poor job with Doc's aides. I went to see it anyway.

DC did some comic books in the 1980s.

I never heard the NPR recreation of the radio show.

Friday, June 11, 2021

Is This Aviator Hoaxing Nation By His Secrecy? -- June 11, 2021


Detroit Times, 29-December-1909

Walter Tillinghast claimed to have built and flown a flying machine. I think he was stretching the truth.


New Englanders Think Wallace E.
Tillinghast, Expert Mechanical
Engineer, Has Wonderful Air ship -- Flights Concealed.

Young Inventor Says He Has Gone
Faster Than 120 Miles an Hour
In His Strange Craft.

(Editor's Note -- Either Wallace K. Tillinghast, the Worcester, Mass., inventor, has made the greatest airship in the world or he is a great hoaxer. The strange moving lights seen by thousands of persons in New England were made by his airship, Tillinghast says. Yet he is unwilling to exhibit it by daylight, and has given only flimsy excuses for his secrecy. Why does Tillinghast hesitate to show his invention to the public? And why did he suppress news of his great test if, as he says, he really flew from Boston to New York in less than five hours? Whether Tillinghast is a joker or not, he's an interesting chap, and our Worchester correspondent has written the following story giving some new facts about him and his machine.)

WORCESTER, Mass., Dec. 29. -- The claims made for his new airship by inventor Wallace E. Tillinghast are no more startling than the airship's design. There Isn't an airship anywhere like it.

"I can fly as no one has ever flown before," he said to The Times correspondent here. "My airship will make 120 miles an hour. It can be stopped in midair, and is as safe -- even safer -- than an auto. When I get good and ready I will show it to the world."

The fact that not once, but several times, people in a dozen cities have seen strange moving lights in the sky, seems to bear out what Tillinghast says. But even his closest friends do not know why he has kept hisu wonderful invention such a secret.

Who Is Tillinghast? Does his record indicate that he would perpetrate a hoax on the world of aeronautics?

Decidedly it does not. He is a Chicago "Tech" school graduate, an expert mechanical and electrical engineer. He has seen service with the Northern Pacific railroad, the Westinghouse concern and Allen & Redd of Providence. While at the last named place Tillinghast invented a heat regulator for steam and hot water systems, which is making him a fortune. He patented it and manufactures it at a good-sized factory here. In all his previous inventions and work he has had no secrets. Why does he shelter his aeroplane so cunningly?

The one remarkable feature about the machine is the way it keeps itself right side up in any kind of a wind. It has two giant "feelers" like an insect’s antennae. These are of rigid frames of steel, 33 feet long, and at the end of each is a box kite. No matter how the wind blows, these kites right themselves and the machine to which they are attached. They can be raised or lowered. When there is no opposing wind, they are lifted to an angle of 43 degrees.

"If I am taking night flights over Boston and New England that’s my business." said Tillinghast. "I will not say that I am or that I am not. I have gone faster than 120 miles an hour. I can go faster again. I have had this machine perfected long enough to take more than 150 flights. And where some of those flights took me will surprise a lot of people when I get ready to talk."

One of the wonderful features of the machine is its car. Bleriot and Latham have their seats above the rigid spread of wings. Tillinghast sits below his plane, in a little cubbyhole protected by an automobile windshield. Inside is his wonderful engine. He has made application to patent it, he says. It is lighter than that of the Wright brothers and far more powerful. It generates enough electricity for his front searchlight and a red tail-light which will serve to warn aviators of the future, who may be on his trail, of the peril of collision.

That his claims are well-founded -- well, you don't know what to believe. There is an airship. That's sure. Thousands have seen it. Here in New England they believe in Tillinghast.

Thursday, June 10, 2021

Jack Johnson Killed in Auto Crash, 75 Years -- June 10, 2021


Dayton Daily Bulletin, 10-June-1921

Jack Johnson was one of the greatest heavyweight champions. Racists hated that he was African-American, and that he regularly defeated white boxers. Some people believe that the fight where he lost the title in 1915 might have been fixed.

I was tweeting with a friend recently and we decided that Jack Johnson vs George Foreman would have been a heck of a fight.

75 years ago today, on 10-June-1946, Jack Johnson died in an automobile accident.

The Dayton Daily Bulletin was an African-American owned newspaper.


RALEIGH, N. C., June 11.— Jack Johnson, the first Negro ever to become heavyweight boxing champion of the world, died at St. Agnes hospital here today following an automobile accident early this afternoon near Franklinton.

Dr. W. D. Allison said that Johnson, who was 68 years old, died of internal injuries and shock.

Fred L. Scott, a Negro companion said he was accompanying the former champion to New York from Texas, where Johnson recently had concluded a personal appearance tour.

As the heavy automobile approached the city limits of Franklinton, about 20 miles north of Raleigh on highway U. S. No. 1, Scott said Johnson apparently lost control of the car on a curve. The car went off the road and crashed into a telephone pole, hitting on the left side where Johnson was sitting.

Johnson won the heavyweight championship in 1908 at Sidney, Australia, when he scored a technical knockout over Tommy Burns of Canada in the fourteenth round. The Galveston, Tex., native who was christened John Arthur Johnson, thus become the first Negro heavyweight champion in history.

After holding the title for seven years, during which he defended his crown against many challengers including former champion Jim Jeffries, Johnson was defeated by Jess Willard in Havana, April 15, 1915.

Tacoma Times, 04-July-1912

Jack Johnson fought Fireman Jim Flynn for the second time on 04-July-1912 in Las Vegas, New Mexico, earning a TKO in the 9th. Fireman Jim's later claim to fame is that he was the only boxer who ever knocked out Jack Dempsey.

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Toonerville Trolley -- The Skipper is Too Good a Fisherman -- June 9, 2021


Philadelphia Evening Public Ledger, 16-May-1921

I love Fontaine Fox's The Toonerville Trolley That Meets All the Trains.

Philadelphia Evening Public Ledger, 05-April-1921

Monday, June 7, 2021

Douglas Campbell 125 -- June 7, 2021


Alaska Daily Empire, 31-August-1918

Douglas Campbell was born 125 years ago today, on 07-June-1921. He was a native of San Francisco and was the first American ace who flew in American-trained units. His father was later president of the University of California. On 05-June-1918, he scored his sixth victory. Badly wounded in the engagement, he did not fight again. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. 

Eddie Rickenbacker was America's Ace of Aces in World War One. He was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Alan Winslow was not an ace, but he shared Campbell's first victory, the first official victory by American pilots in an American unit. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. 

All three men were members of the famous 94th Aero Squadron, the "Hat in the Ring" squadron.

Sunday, June 6, 2021

Bill Lange 150 -- June 6, 2021


1897 Spalding Baseball Guide

Bill Lange, an outfielder from San Francisco, was born 150 years ago today, on 06-June-1871. For some reason, his nickname was Little Eva. He played his whole major league career with the Chicago National League club, which went through several names before it became the Cubs. Lange retired at 29 after the 1899 season and went into business in San Francisco. His nephew Highpockets Kelly played for the New York Giants.

Saturday, June 5, 2021

Laura Bromwell, Champion Loop Maker -- June 5, 2021

Twin City Review, 17-June-1921

Laura Bromwell was the first woman in the United States to get a pilot's license after World War One. On 15-May-1921 she set a record by performing 199 loops. On 05-June-1921, while performing stunts, she died in a crash. You will notice that the newspaper item about her looping record is dated weeks after death and more than a month after she set the record. from the Mt Vernon Ohio Democratic Banner, 07-June-1921

Laura Bromwell, One of
Best Known Pilots, Killed
In a Fall
Motor Stopped Causing Plane
To Fall To the Earth;
Other Details

[By Associated Press to The Banner]
MINEOLA, N. Y., June 6 -- Miss Laura Bromwell, holder of the loop- the-loop record for women and one of the best known women pilots in the world, was killed at Mitchell field yesterday afternoon.

Miss Bromwell was flying at an altitude of about 1,000 feet when the accident happened. She had just completed one loop and was about to make a second when something went wrong with the plane and it crashed to the ground.

Miss Bromwell, whose home was in Cincinnati, was 33 years old.

She established her loop-the-loop record on May 15 last, when she executed 199 loops in an hour and 20 minutes. That same afternoon she piloted her airplane over a two-mile straightaway course at the rate of 135 miles an hour.

Military observers who witnessed the flight declared that the girl's airplane motor stopped abruptly as she was making the upward turn of the loop. Suddenly the machine fell back ward into a tail spin and dropped like a plummet onto a road just outside the field.

Friday, June 4, 2021

Ford Quadricycle 125 -- June 4, 2021


125 years ago today, on 04-June-1896, Henry Ford test drove his first automobile, the Quadricycle. The original vehicle is on display at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan ( 

I know Henry Ford was a bad guy in his anti-Semitic views and the way he treated his poor son, but I have always admired his engineering ideas. One that he held from his very first car, the Quadricycle, was that autos should be built lightly but strongly. 

Thursday, June 3, 2021

Krazy Kat -- I Can Wrinkle His Bean -- June 3, 2021


Washington Times, 12-June-1921

I love George Herriman's Krazy Kat. Poor Ignatz is foiled again. Click on the image to see a larger version.

Washington Times, 03-June-1918

Wednesday, June 2, 2021

Zane Grey Week -- 02-June-2021

Motion Picture News, 21-May-1921

Zane Grey was a popular Western novelist in the first half of the Twentieth Century. I had read about movies made from his stories, so I took a few novels out from the Anza Branch Library. It turns out that he was not a very good writer, but he did produce interesting characters and descriptions.

I thought I might join with producer Benjamin B Hampton and have a Zane Grey Week. Please visit over on my movies-mostly blog: Big V Riot Squad

Motion Picture News, 04-June-1921

Norwich Bulletin, 02-June-1921

Tomorrow: Fighting Blood. 

Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Tulsa Race Massacre 100 -- Day 2 -- June 1, 2021

Daily Ardmoreite, 01-June-1921

100 years ago today, on 31-May-1921, a white mob in Tulsa, Oklahoma attacked the black-owned Greenwood District, destroying businesses, burning houses and killing people of color. The Tulsa Race Massacre may have been the worst single instance of racial violence in US history.  No one knows how many African Americans died. "Frisco" refers to the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway.

Race War Rages in Tulsa Following Arrest of Negro Charged With
Assaulting Young White Girls; Number of Dead Increased With Late
Reports: Torch Leaves Fiery Trail Through "Little Africa" of the
Northeast Metropolis; State Troops Hold Muskogee Negroes at Bay


State Troops Patrol Streets of
Tulsa While Negroes Flee From
Burning Homes and Surrender to
Armed Guards; Over 3,000 Are
Now Held in Prison Camps


Tulsa, Okla., June l.-- At 9 o'clock, 3,000 negroes had been gathered at convention hall under guard. It was filled as was also the police station. The remainder of those gathered up are being taken to the baseball park. All are under armed guard.

The national guard got into action about 11 o'clock last night about an hour after the battle began at the house, when a detachment appeared at the police station under command of Major Rooney. After driving away the crowd which had broken into the store of a sporting goods house, to obtain arms and attempting to disperse them from the block in front of the police station, the guardsmen made flying trips in trucks and automobiles into outlying districts.

Later detachments were quartered in various parts of town to suppress possible, outbreaks and a large squad with a machine gun, was sent to the end of Admiral Boulevard, with instructions to hold it at all hazards against a reported invasion of 500 blacks from Muskogee, which failed to materialize.

At 7:30 this morning, the entire south side of the negro quarter, on either side of Archer, extending from Boston east to Elgin, was a mass of flames.

Following the fighting last night, white men everywhere were heard threatening to wipe out "Little Africa" forever, with the torch. The first attempt was made at 1:30 last night, when two houses at Archer and Boston, which had been used as a garrison by more than 50 negroes burst into flame.

An alarm was sent in and the fire department dashed to the scene. An attempt to lay hose was quickly stopped by 50 armed white men who had assembled and the fire equipment was returned to the station. While the crowd turned again to exchanging shots at long range with the negroes who were slowly retreating to the north and east behind the buildings of the district.

The start to make good the threat in earnest to burn negro town, was at 6:40 o'clock this morning. Almost simultaneously fire began to steal from the windows and doors of the deserted shacks along Archer and soon dense clouds of smoke were enveloping the entire district. Under the smoke veil, armed men scouted in automobiles and as soon as their cordon tightened about the place where the negroes were stationed and occasional firing gave warning that the fight was still on.

Negroes remained in many of the burning homes until they were enveloped by fire and threatened to fall. Then they could be seen by scores, darting from doors with their hands upraised and crying "Don't shoot," as they dashed through the smoke to surrender and be taken to the prison camp established at convention hall.

State troops under command of Adjutant General C. F. Barret arrived here at 9 o'clock to take charge of the riot resulting from a race war when armed negroes and whites engaged in battle. At this hour the situation was reported quieter so far as actual firing was concerned, but fires were raging in all parts of the negro section of the city. The flames were spreading and threatened to wipe out a considerable portion of white residence districts in the Standpipe and Sunset Hill sections. It is believed the whole negro section will be wiped out.

Six white men are known to have been killed. It is estimated that fifty negroes, men and women and children, have been killed. Scores have been wounded.

Three thousand negroes had been segregated in prison camps where they are under armed guards.



(By the Associated Press)

Muskogee, June 1. -- Company A, Muskogee and Company B of Wagoner, Ola., national guards, were ordered at 9:45 a. m. to proceed at once to Tulsa. A special train is being made up.

Tulsa, June 1. -- A war between negroes and whites, starting over the arrest of a negro charged with an assault on a white woman, had continued early Wednesday morning and national guard troops were ordered to Tulsa to aid in controlling the various factions The exact number of killed and injured was not known but the killed were believed to total almost a hundred.

Rowland was spirited out of town at 2 o'clock this morning by deputies from Sheriff  O'ccullough's office. They refused to divulge his whereabouts.

Officers said the black would be given a speedy trial just as soon as the situation quiets down to permit it, and the case will be transferred to another jurisdiction if it is found impossible to try it here. They gave assurance he would be fully punished if found guilty of the charge.

Rowland is accused of attacking an orphan girl in an elevator.

Adjutant General Barret has taken up headquarters at the city hall and announced that Col. B. H. Markham. Oklahoma City, would be in command of field operations.

Two companies from Muskogee and one from Wagoner were ordered by Barrett to entrain at once. Another company will arrive from Oklahoma City at 1 o'clock. Martial law has not yet been declared and only developments will determine if it is to be invoked, Barrett added. He is working under direction of the sheriff, the mayor and chief of police until such time as he deems it necessary to change command, the adjutant general said. The troops are to be stationed at once in the negro district.

In a fresh outbreak in the Standpipe Hill district in the extreme northern section of the black belt, Mrs. S. A. Gilmore, 225 East King street, a white woman, was shot in the left arm and side, at 7:30 o'clock. Mrs. Gilmore was standing on the front porch of her home when she was picked off by a black sniper, one of a score or more barricaded in a church.

Hundreds of armed white men are being rushed to the district in automobiles. An open battle is believed imminent.

A white girl was reported killed on North Peoria in the vicinity of a refinery. The report could not be verified at 10 o'clock. At 10 o'clock it was reported two carloads of negroes from Muskogee had passed Kendall college, located in the eastern part of the city.

A 20 year old white boy, thought to be named Olson and living at Sapulpa died at 8:30 o'clock, following a battle an hour earlier at the Frisco depot in which negroes are reported to have been killed. Olson's body was removed to undertaking parlors where it awaits positive identification.



Oklahoma City, June 1. -- Martial law will be invoked In Tulsa unless the situation there is relieved, and under control within the next hour or two, governor Robertson said at 11:45 o'clock following long distance conversation with officials at Tulsa. Attorney General Freeling will go to Tulsa this afternoon.

"The situation at Tulsa seems peculiar to me," Governor Robertson said. "With power vested in all city and county officials there to deputize and put into the law enforcement every citizen of the city if necessary, I cannot understand how this trouble was allowed to get such a start."

Conversation with Adjutant General Barret was to the effect that it was impossible for the fire department to enter the negro section and that the flames were raging unabated.

Would Mean Firemen's Life

Tulsa, Okla., June 1. -- "We can't use the equipment we have and for that reason have not asked for fire apparatus from other cities," R C. Alder, fire chief, said at ten o'clock this morning.

"It would mean a fireman's life to turn a stream of water on one of those negro buildings. They shot at us all morning when we were trying to do something but none of my men were hit. There is not a chance in the world to get through that mob into the negro district.

"We have five lines protecting the warehouses on the Katy railroad and I think we have them saved. If the wind should change the white residence section east of the negro district would be menaced.

"The fire has swept Greenwood street, where the negro business section was located and is sweeping around the hill north. So far the white residence section on the north has not been touched."

Chief Alder indicated that he was prepared to call for outside assistance in case it became necessary.


Officers Spirit Brute
Accused of Crime to Place
of Safety; Street Car
Traffic Suspends; Business
Houses Close



(By The Associated Press)

Tulsa, June 1. -- Pandemonium reigns throughout Tulsa today, following a night of rioting between the whites and blacks, which had its inception when a negro shot a white man in the crowd which had assembled about the county jail in which was confined Dick Rowland, a negro charged with assault upon a white girl.

A full half hundred negroes are been rounded up and are now held under a strong guard. Fires are springing up in all sections of that portion of Tulsa settled by negroes and known as "Little Africa."

State troops from Oklahoma City, arrived on the scene early this morning and the situation is reported well in hand, by the mayor and chief of police, both of whom, however, have appealed to citizens to remain within doors and not to gather upon the streets.

Stores remain closed throughout the morning, while street car and interurban traffic is at a standstill, and railway trains are detoured around the city. Strongly armed bodies of men are guarding all the roads which lead out of and into the city.

While it is known that several white men have died from bullets fired by negroes, it is estimated that fully half a hundred blacks have been slain, and it is generally conceded that this number will be materially augmented before the smoke of battle finally clears away. Information as to the exact number of fatalities is unavailable at the present hour, but it is known that many, both whites and blacks, have been wounded, some of them seriously.

Appeals were issued to the citizens by chief of Police Gustafson and Mayor L. F. J. Rooney in command of the local guard units to remain indoors. They expressed the hope at the same time that the situation was being gotten under control, and expected to have it well in hand with the arrival of more troops from Oklahoma City at 8:30.

Superintendent E. E. Obernoltzer announced that schools in the danger zone would not convene today. He said those remote from seats of trouble would continue as usual but no attempt whatever would be made to hold classes in sections where there might be danger to the pupils going and coming from the schools.

At 8:30 two white men killed in the riot had been identified.

Carl D. Lotpeisch, 28, Randall, Kansas, was shot through the breast and taken to a hospital at 6:30 o'clock this morning. He died shortly afterward.

An unidentified white man, about 28; light brown hair, light brown eyes, five feet ten inches, 160 pounds at undertaking parlor now.

F. L. Curry, age 26, and son of Judge F. Z. Curry, was slightly wounded in the neck by a flying bullet at Fifth and Boston, at 11 o'clock last night. He had stopped his car at the filling station at Fifth and Boston and was standing by it unconscious of the impending trouble when the battle at the court house broke and one of the first bullets struck him. His wound was pronounced not serious.

A. B. Stick, age 29, city clerk of Sapulpa, is near death from a bullet wound entering the back and going entirely through the body. Stick was standing on the Cincinnati avenue steps of a leading hotel watching the fight when a stray bullet struck him down.

G. T. Prunkard, aged 34, also of Sapulpa, a Frisco conductor was in the caboose of a Frisco train when shots fired by negroes at the crowd, went wild and pierced him in the right shoulder, chin and forehead. His wounds are not believed fatal, although very painful. The shots were from a shotgun and of a small size.

Lee Fischer, age 21, a truck driver, was shot in the left leg and thigh while at First and Cincinnati during the battle in that quarter at 10:20 last night. He will recover.

L. C. Slinkard, age 25, West Tulsa car inspector for the Frisco, was crossing Main street at the Frisco tracks, a few minutes before the first firing took place when a speeding automobile filled with armed negroes ran him down, fracturing his middle thigh and left leg.

Armed Whites Roundup Blacks

Tulsa, Okla., June 1. -- Firing continued here today after a night of race war.

Hundreds of armed white men were rounding up all negroes in the negro section of the city, segregating them under guard.

Innumerable fires also were burning in the negro section of the city.

No estimate was possible early this morning of the dead, but it was known that at least seven white men had been killed and scores wounded. The hospitals were filled to their capacity.

A number of negroes are dead and it is estimated that the total death toil may reach beyond a score. Talk of driving into "Little Africa," as the negro section of the city is known, was heard on all sides. As these threats were heard the torch was set to all sections on the district and fires were soon burning throughout the black belt.

The trouble began Tuesday night with the gathering of a mob of whites at the county courthouse, where Dick Rowland, a negro, was held on a charge of attempted assault on a white girl.

Soon armed blacks came on the scene after the whites and blacks had faced each other for some time, the first shot was repotted fired by a black when a white man attempted to wrest a gun from a negro. The whites were reported to have been unarmed.

A fusillade of bullets followed, which continued throughout the night. Stores were broken into and all guns and ammunition seized and passed out. All roads and bridges were under guard by armed posses. Street car service was suspended and business places were closed.

As the negroes were rounded up they were herded into Convention Hall under guard.

The police station was filled to overcrowding with blacks and it was then that they were taken to Convention Hall.

Automobiles were returning from the negro section loaded with men and women.

Gangs of negro men were driven in solid formation through the streets to places of safety where they could be guarded.

Reports were heard that Muskogee negroes were arming to come here, but a long-distance telephone message to the Tribune disproved it, and added that three companies of state troops were held in readiness to proceed here.

Reports were piling up as the morning wore on of additional fatalities, but definite information was un- available.

Governor Robertson Has
Declared Martial Law
To Control Tulsa Trouble

Oklahoma City, June 1. -- Martial law in Tulsa was ordered by Governor Robertson at 11:15 o'clock and Adjutant General Barrett placed in command of the city. The order was given over the long distance telephone and a proclamation to this effect is being prepared and will be issued immediately.

June, 2021 Version of the Cable Car Home Page -- June 1, 2021

The Cable Car Home Page will be 25 years old in November.

I just put the June, 2021 version of my Cable Car Home Page on the server:

It includes some new items:
1. Picture of the Month: The Mount Auburn Cable Railway's powerhouse and carbarn at Dorchester Street and Highland Avenue survived until the 21st Century. This image was taken in November, 2020, two months before the roof collapsed under a burden of snow. The building was demolished in February, 2021 (Source: Copyright 2019 Google).
2. On the Cable Car Lines in Ohio page: A ten year update about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway, including images of the powerhouse before the roof collapsed in early 2021.
3. On the Cable Tramways in Australia and New Zealand page: Links to current videos about Dunedin, New Zealand's Mornington Tramway and the Wellington Cable Car. Thank you to Bus Driver Nick for sharing his work.
4. Added News items about Cal Cable car 60 appearing in a movie and the pandemic and the return of the F-line

Ten years ago this month (June, 2011):
1. The picture of the month: Grip car 21 of Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway
2. On the new Cable Car Lines in Ohio page: A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- "Articles of incorporation of the Mt. Auburn Cable Railway Company, of Cincinnati have been left with the Secretary of State." (Springfield Daily Republic. (Springfield, Ohio), Saturday, January 31, 1885)
-- "One hundred thousand dollars of stock for the Mt. Auburn cable road has been subscribed and paid up." (Daily Evening Bulletin (Maysville, Kentucky), Monday, March 16, 1885)
-- "The board of public works of Cincinnati refused to grant privileges to the Mount Auburn Cable Railroad company to construct a cable road on Sycamore street to the Zoological garden." (Daily Evening Bulletin (Maysville, Kentucky), Wednesday, June 10, 1885)
-- "The Mt. Auburn cable is expected to be ready for operation from Fourth street, Cincinnati, to Mt. Auburn within a month." (Springfield Daily Republic. (Springfield, Ohio), Saturday, August 27, 1887)
-- "TEN PERSONS HURT IN A CABLE CAR" (The New-York Tribune, Sunday, March 10, 1889)
3. Also on the new Cable Car Lines in Ohio page: Contemporary newspaper articles about Cincinnati's cable cars and the Vine Street Cable Railway: A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- "...there are now in successful operation in Cincinnati three well-equipped cable railways..." (Perrysburg Journal. (Perrysburg, Ohio)), Friday, April 13, 1888). The three Hallidie-type cable car lines in Cincinnati. A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- "Some Funny Bets" (The Hocking Sentinel, (Logan, Ohio)), Thursday, November 15, 1888). Two Vine Street conductors make an unusual bet on the presidential election. A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- "KILLED ON A CABLE CAR/A Peculiar Accident Results From Carelessness." (St. Paul Daily Globe), Monday, July 15, 1889) A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- "Her Pretty Teeth" (Wichita Eagle, Tuesday, October 29, 1889). Reprinted in many newspapers, this joke was set on a Vine Street cable car. A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- Powerhouse Destroyed (Daily Evening Bulletin (Maysville, Kentucky), Monday, March 21, 1892) A new article about Cincinnati's Mount Auburn Cable Railway. Including magazine articles and contemporary newspaper articles:
-- "Yakey in Cincinnati." (The National Tribune), Thursday, August 10, 1893). A Vine Street employee keeps in touch with a conversation club in Washington, DC.
4. On the Australia/New Zealand page: Thanks to Ric Fisher, updated the Penang Hills Railway article to reflect the reopening of the rebuilt line and include his latest photographs

Twenty years ago this quarter (Spring, 2001):
1. Picture of the Quarter: Will Clark riding on cable car
2. Add more items to the Kitsch page, including stamps and magazine advertisements.
3. Add Selected articles from Manufacturer and Builder Magazine (1880-1884) to the Miscellany page.
4. Update How Do Cable Cars Work? page. Changed images to thumbnails. Added girder rail image from Randy Hees and other new images.
5. Bob Murphy provided a photograph of the Gertrude Street Cable Winding House, which I added to the Melbourne article. Peter Vawser provided additional information about Melbourne cable tramways.
6. Add links to Kavanaugh Transit site, North American Vintage Trolley Systems and many others.
7. Add News and Bibliography items about a truck knocking down Seattle's Iron Pergola.
8. Add News and Bibliography items about Angel's Flight runaway accident. Also updated the Los Angeles Area Funiculars page.
9. Move Kalakala article to my ferry web site.
10. Change toy cable car picture on the main page to car 51.
11. Move "The Los Angeles Cable Railway" article from Scientific American (courtesy of Tom Ehrenreich) to another server.

Coming in July, 2021: On the Cable Car Lines in the UK page:  More about the Isle of Man's Upper Douglas Cable Tramway.

The Cable Car Home Page now has a Facebook page:

Joe Thompson
The Cable Car Home Page (updated 01-June-2021)
San Francisco Bay Ferryboats (updated 31-January-2020)
Park Trains and Tourist Trains (updated 31-July-2019)
The Pneumatic Rolling-Sphere Carrier Delusion (updated spasmodically)
The Big V Riot Squad (new blog)

Monday, May 31, 2021

Tulsa Race Massacre 100 -- Day One -- May 31, 2021


Guthrie Daily Leader, 01-June-1921

100 years ago today, on 31-May-1921, a white mob in Tulsa, Oklahoma attacked the black-owned Greenwood District, destroying businesses, burning houses and killing people of color. The Tulsa Race Massacre may have been the worst single instance of racial violence in US history. 

It all started when shoe shiner Dick Rowland, who was African-American, stepped on the foot of a young white woman who was operating an elevator. When she screamed and he ran out of the building, people assumed that she had been assaulted. Rowland survived the massacre and was acquitted of assault, but then he disappeared. "Frisco" refers to the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway. 

75 Persons Killed in Tulsa Race War


Oklahoma City. June 1. - Seventy five persons, whites and negroes, have been killed in the race outbreak in Tulsa, according to a telephone message to Governor Robertson here today from the chief of police at Tulsa.

"Little Africa," the negro section of the city, is in flames; 500 armed white men are guarding the fire department to prevent any aid reaching the burning section of the city. The militia and police are powerless.

Practically Entire Negro
District of Oil
Metropolis in Ruins
Following a Night of
Terror; Whites and
Blacks Battle During
Long Night; City is
Placed Under Martial
Law; Many Are Wounded


Tulsa. June 1. -- Ten white men are known to have been killed in the race war that raged here from Tuesday night until noon. Chief of Police estimated that sixty-five negroes have been killed. Scores of whites and negroes have been wounded.

Practically the entire negro district is a mass of ruins. The loss will reach into thousands of dollars. It is believed that the white resident districts which were menaced will be saved from the flames which are still raging in the negro section.

The city and county are under martial law. Adjutant Barrett, of the Oklahoma National Guard, is in control.

With these precautions taken, it is believed that the situation is temporarily under control, although new outbreaks are feared.

Governor Robertson is enroute here from Oklahoma City to aid Adjutant General Barrett in restoring order and supervising the direction of fortes now in command in the city.

A military commission, composed of the officials and business men to pass upon the status of six thousand negroes now held in construction camps was formed shortly before noon by Mayor Evans and chief of police with the approval of Adjutant General Barrett. This committee will pass upon the guilt of those held under guard in the various camps.

The list of the white dead show ten have been killed. They are:
Homer Cline, 17 years old, a white boy.
Cleo Shumate, Tulsa. 24, shot early last night, died this morning. He was a tool dresser.
M. Baker, 27. Haviland. Kan.
Clyde Greaves, 30, Tulsa.
Three other white men. all unidentified, are lying in the morgues.


Tulsa. June 1. -- The race rioting that broke out here late Tuesday night grew out of the arrest Tuesday afternoon of Dick Rowland, a negro bootblack, on a charge of assaulting a white elevator girl in the Drexel building on Monday.

There was a movement afoot, it was reported, among white people to go to the county courthouse Tuesday night and lynch the bootblack. This report spread over "Little Africa" and early in the evening crowds of negros began forming.

Rowland was taken from the city to the county jail Tuesday afternoon and his preliminary trial set for June 7 In municipal court.

Rowland was arrested on South Greenwood avenue early Tuesday morning by officers Henry Carmichael and C. Pach. He was identified by the girl after his capture.


Bartlesville, June 1 -- A train crew from Tulsa that passed through here this morning told the operator at the Union depot he had passed three thousand negroes near Owasso this morning and they were headed in the direction of Bartlesville. The operator said that he was told by the crew most of the negroes were walking.


Tulsa. June 1. -- "We can't use the equipment we have and for that reason have not asked for more apparatus from other cities," R.C. Alder, fire chief, said at 10 o'clock this morning.

"It would mean a fireman's life to turn a stream of water on one of those negro buildings. They shot at us all morning when we were trying to do something but none of my men were hit. There is not a chance in the world to get through that mob into the negro district.

"We have five lines protecting the warehouses on the Katy railroad and I think we hare them saved. If the wind should change the white residence section east of the negro district would be menaced.

"The fire has swept Greenwood street, where the negro business section was located and is sweeping around the hill to the north. So far the white residence section on the north has not been touched."

Chief Adler indicated that he was prepared to call for outside assistance in case it became necessary.


Muskogee, June 1 -- The city was thrown into a high pitch of excitement when the fire department's siren was sounded at 10:40 calling out the national guards for duty at Tulsa. It wad some moments before quiet could be restored through announcement that the call was for the militia.


A white girl was reported killed on North Peoria in the vicinity of a refinery. The report could not be verified at 10 o'clock.

The firing came from a lot where throughout the early morning hours five hundred white men and a thousand negroes faced each other across railroad tracks. First reports to police headquarters said that the bodies of six to ten negroes could be seen lying in a space described as "No Man's Land." The police also had a report that three St. Louis & San Francisco railway switchmen and a brakeman had been shot to death.

At 10 o'clock it was reported two ' carloads of negroes from Muskogee had passed Kendal College, located in the eastern part of the city.


At 9 o'clock 3,000 negroes had been gathered at convention hall, under guard. It was filled as was also the police station. The remainder of those gathered up are being taken to the baseball park. All are under armed guard.

Casualty List

Up to 1 o'clock today the following white dead had been identified: Carl D. Lotspeisch, 28, Mendall, Kansas; John Palmer, 28; F. M. Baker, 27; Normand Gilliland, Norfolk, Va.; L. S. Slickard, 25, Tulsa F. L. Curry, 26, son of Judge F. Z. Curry; G. T. Prunkard, 34, Sapulpa; Lee Fischer 21, Tulsa. Many other unidentified dead. 

A re-check of the injured revealed the following at the various hospitals:
Earl Hileman, city, shot through thigh, not serious.
G. B. Steck, Sapulpa, shot in back, serious.
J. E. Wissinger, city, shot in knee.
G. F. Joiner, city, shot in leg, not serious.
Ross G. Owens, city, shot with bird shot, several wounds but not serious.
E. D. Hartshorne, city, shot in thigh.
Edward Austin, city, shot in toe, not serious.
Grocer Slinkhard, West Tulsa, fractured rib.
Robert Elmer, West Tulsa.
A. W. Dow, city, shot in upper thigh and compound fracture of arm, serious.
C. N. Thomas, city, shot in leg, not serious.
E. R. Hileam, Fern Hotel, compound fracture of thigh, serious.
Garland Crouch, city, shot in upper abdomen and right arm, thought to be serious.
A. T. Sterling, city, minor injuries.
E. Beichner, West Tulsa, shot in hand and leg, not serious.
Leo Fisher, city, shot in left leg and thigh, thought to be serious.
G. L. Prunkart, Frisco conductor, shot with bird shot in shoulder, chin and forehead. He was shot while sitting in caboose of train, just pulling into city.
There are two wounded patients unidentified. Fifteen or twenty patients having only slight wounds called at hospital and had them dressed, left hospital without giving name or address.
George Switzgood, city, not seriously.
K. G. Logsdon, city, shot in arm, not serious.
Sergeant W. R. Hastings, city, not serious.
H. L. Curry, city, shot through neck, serious.
E. F. Vickers, city, shot in arm.
V. W. Gamble, city, thought serious.
Jess Collins, city, serious.
R. N. Seltzer, city, leg, not serious.
Otto Sherry, city, face powder burned.
Thirty-five or forty who were only slightly wounded were attended at another hospital after the wounds were dressed they walked out, leaving no name or address.
H. C. Bankson, Jenks, Okla., tool dresser, shot through right wrist, bullet travelling through abdomen into the left arm.

Memorial Day 2021 -- May 31, 2021

On Memorial Day it is fitting and proper to remember the men and women who gave their lives, who continue to give their lives, to give us the country we deserve.

On 17-March-1945, Fleet Admiral Chester W Nimitz wrote: “The battle of Iwo Island [Iwo Jima] has been won. The United States Marines, by their individual and collective courage, have conquered a base which is as necessary to us in our continuing forward movement toward final victory as it was vital to the enemy in staving off ultimate defeat.... Among the Americans who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue.”

I took this photo on 14-December-2007 at the National Cemetery in the Presidio.

Sunday, May 30, 2021

Amos Rusie 150 -- May 30, 2021

Amos Rusie, the Hoosier Thunderbolt, was the hardest-throwing pitcher of the 19th Century.  He was born 150 years ago today, on 30-May-1871. 

He played most of his career for the New York Giants.  In 1893, he threw 50 complete games. 

After he hit Hughie Jennings in the head with a pitch, Jennings was unconscious for four days.  This led baseball to move the pitcher's mound farther away from home plate, from 50 feet to 60 feet, six inches.  He is a member of the Hall of Fame.

COVID-19, Vaccine, Masks, Church, Baseball and School -- May 30, 2021

In May, infections and deaths are way down in the United States. India is being hit badly.

By late May, 50% of American adults have received at least one shot. Many crazy people are refusing to get vaccinated.

Governor Newsome says that on 15-June-2021 most businesses can reopen at full capacity and most people can stop wearing masks out-of-doors.

My wife and I, now fully vaccinated started going to Sunday mass in the gym.

The Giants were in first place for a while.

The F-Line and most of the Muni Metro lines returned to service. No word yet on when cable cars will start running again.

Saturday, May 29, 2021

Friday, May 28, 2021

Audie Murphy 50 Years -- May 28, 2021

Audie Murphy's father abandoned the family when Audie was young. Audie's mother worked hard to hold her children together. Audie developed great skill at shooting by hunting to feed the family. His mother died when he was 16 and he took care of all of the children as well as he could. After Pearl Harbor, he tried to volunteer for the Army, the Navy and the Marine Corps, but they all rejected him for being below minimum weight and age. He lied about his age and joined the Army. He took part in Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily, and Torch, the invasion of the south of France. He earned a battlefield commission and nearly every decoration that was out there up to the Medal of Honor.

His experiences left him with a bad case of PTSD, but he went to Hollywood and became an actor, starring in To Hell and Back, his own biography. He appeared in many westerns and in John Huston's adaption of The Red Badge of Courage. When I was young, San Francisco television stations did not play many westerns, so I did not become familiar with his work. 50 years ago today, on 28-May-1971, he died in a plane crash. I knew his name, but not a lot about him at that time.

Thursday, May 27, 2021

Bierstadt -- Merced River -- May 27, 2021

I have always enjoyed the luminist paintings of Albert Bierstadt. "Merced River," date unknown. I find this peaceful. 

Sunday, May 23, 2021

Eggs From the Farallones -- May 23, 2021


San Francisco Call, 20-June-1895

William A Coulter did many maritime drawings for the San Francisco Call. The article from the 20-June-1895 San Francisco Call describes an operation which collected eggs on the Farallons, a group of islands about 30 miles off the coast of San Francisco. The rampant collecting of eggs threatened the survival of the birds on the island, so President Theodore Roosevelt created the Farallon Reservation in 1909. Clam Johnson is a great name.

Clam Johnson and His Sloop Trial.

The little sloop Trial, which is known along the water front as the egg boat, leaves this morning for the Farallon Islands. This will be her third trip this season. On the first trip she brought back 805 dozen eggs and on the last 1045 dozen. The owner and navigator of the Trial is the celebrated Clam Johnson, who has been running out to the islands for several years. The eggs are a species about three times the size of the household article, and are known as seagull and Farallon chicken eggs. They retail at about 25 cents a dozen and are used mainly by bakers and restaurant-keepers in the manufacture of pastry, etc. They make very good pies and puddings, Captain Johnson says, and one egg will make an omelet for three.

Friday, May 21, 2021

Thursday, May 20, 2021

Cher 75 -- May 20, 2021

Cher, who is equally talented as a singer and an actress, was born 75 years ago today, on 20-May-1946. I have always liked her low voice and her dead-pan delivery. I remember hearing music from Sonny and Cher for most of my life. "I Got You Babe" got stuck in my head recently. I remember their television show, and then her solo show after they split. She acted on Broadway and in films and was exceptionally good. She won the Best Actress Oscar for Moonstruck. I thought some of her solo songs were bombastic, but I still remember them.

Wednesday, May 19, 2021

Dance to This New Victrola Music -- May 19, 2021


West Virginian, 19-May-1921

This list of Victor Talking Machine Company records includes some scattered jazz titles. The Dixieland Jazz Band must be the aggregation known more commonly as the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. The Benson Orchestra of Chicago was a popular dance band that played some jazz.

Tuesday, May 18, 2021

Plessy v Ferguson 125 -- May 18, 2021

Roanoke Times, 19-May-1896

125 years ago today, on 18-May-1896, the US Supreme Court affirmed that the doctrine of separate but equal applied to railroads. This precedent was followed for many years in many situations. Justice John Marshall Harlan dissented. 

Homer Plessy was a light-skinned African American man who was part of a protest designed to get  himself arrested, much the way that Rosa Parks later got arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus. 


Important Decision by the Supreme Court

In a Case to Test the Louisiana Statute
Requiring Railroads to Furnish Separate
Coaches for White and Colored Persons -- Judge Harlan In Dissenting
Says It Would Be As Reasonable to Separate Americans From Foreigners.

Washington, May 18 -- The supreme court of the United States decided today in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson, that the statute of the State of Louisiana requiring railroad companies to supply separate coaches for white and colored persons is constitutional, affirming the decision of the court below. Justice Brown delivered the opinion. Justice Harlan dissented.

Justice Brown dismissed this case with a very brief opinion, merely saying that the State legislation in this case was analogous with legislation providing separate schools for colored and white children. Plessy, a mulatto, was put out of a coach on the East Louisiana railroad set apart for whites and was placed under arrest for violation of the law.

The proceeding in this court was based upon an application for a writ of prohibition against the trial of the case by Judge Ferguson, of Section A of the criminal district court for the parish of Orleans. This application was first made to the supreme court of Louisiana and was denied. Justice Brown's opinion affirmed the State court's opinion.

Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion, said that it would be just as reasonable to require separate coaches for Americans and foreigners, for men of Latin race and those of the Teutonic, or for men of differing views on political or religious questions, or to require that one side of the street should be set aside for whites and the other for blacks. He contended that the law was repugnant to the thirteenth amendment. Railroads were, he said, public highways to the use of which citizens are entitled.

Monday, May 17, 2021

Coca-Cola -- When the Number Two From the South Pulls In -- May 17, 2021


Washington Evening Star, 18-May-1921

I like the activity in this Coca-Cola ad. I wonder who drew it. Note the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) lodge visible above the Coca-Cola sign. 

Saturday, May 15, 2021

Planet Comics -- May 15, 2021

Fiction House comics were famous for having lovely women on the covers. The contents were not always so creative. Planet Comics was the first science fiction comic book.

Friday, May 14, 2021

Declaration of War 175 -- May 14, 2021


On 11-May-1846, US President James K Polk sent a message to Congress requesting a declaration of war against Mexico. 175 years ago today, on 14-May-1846, Congress passed such a declaration. I thought it was interesting that this story said that Polk's message was the first long document transmitted by telegraph. 

Captain Seth Thornton was wounded and captured during a skirmish with Mexican soldiers. He was returned with other wounded men. Later, Thornton was killed on 20-August-1847 in an engagement at Churubusco outside Mexico City. The river referred to as Del Norte is the Rio Grande.

The Portsmouth, Virginia New Era, 14-May-1846.


We perceive that modern whiggery alias the toryism of 76, true to its instincts, is pouring forth its usual quantum of abuse and opposition against the government of the people. Not even the invasion of our territory and the blood of our slaughtered countrymen can incite some of the advocates of foreigner interests and insolence, to forget party, and go for the country. We envy not the spirit of those Congressmen and others, who can at this crisis act the traitor. A fearful retribution awaits those who dare attempt to betray the interests and honor of America. Let the odium attached to the term "Federalism" by the conduct of a party during the last war with Britain, warn even the anti-patriotic to beware.

The Bill as given below, which passed the House of Representatives by a vote of 173 to 14, is under discussion in the Senate, and will no doubt pass that body, with perhaps some slight modification in form. The emergency demands promptitude, and patriotism should dictate unanimity.

Since penning the above we learn from the Baltimore Sun, that the bill has passed the Senate by a vote 40 to 2. The amendments of the Senate strike out the portion requiring the officers commanding volunteers to be chosen by and with the advice of the Senate; and reduce the pay of privates to 8 dollars per month. The House met at 7 o clock, P. M., and concurred in the amendments of the Senate.

Whereas, by the act of the republic of Mexico a state of war exists between that government and the United States:
Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, for the purpose of enabling the government of the United States to prosecute said war to a speedy and successful termination, the President be, and he is hereby authorized to employ the militia, naval, and military forces of the United States, and to call for and accept the services of any number of volunteers, not exceeding fifty thousand, who may offer their services either as cavalry, artillery, or riflemen, to serve twelve months after they shall have arrived at the place of rendezvous, or to the end of the war, unless sooner discharged; and that the sum of ten millions of dollars out of any money in the treasury, or to come into the treasury not otherwise appropriated, be, and the same is hereby, appropriated, for the purpose of carrying the provisions of this act into effect.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the militia, when called into the service of the United Stales by virtue of this act, or any other act, may if in the opinion of the President of the United States the public interest requires it. be compelled to serve for a term not exceeding six months, after their arrival at the place of rendezvous, in any one year, unless sooner discharged.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the said volunteers shall furnish their own clothes, and if cavalry, their own horses; and when mustered into service shall be armed and equipped at the expense of the United States.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That said volunteers shall, when called into actual service, and while remaining therein, be subject to the rules and articles of war, and shall be in all respects except as to clothing and pay, placed on the same footing with similar corps of the United States army ; and in lieu of clothing every non-commissioned officer and private in any company who may thus offer himself shall be entitled, when called into actual service, to receive in money a sum equal to the cost of clothing of a non-commissioned officer or private (as the case may be) in the regular troops of the United States.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the said volunteers so offering their services shall be accepted by the President in companies, battalions squadrons, and regiments, whose officers shall be appointed in the manner prescribed by law in the several States and Territories to which such companies, battalions, squadrons, and regiments shall respectively belong.

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to organize companies so tendering their services into battalions or squadrons; battalions and squadrons into regiments; regiments into brigades, and brigades into divisions, as soon as' the number of volunteers shall render such organization, in his judgment, expedient; and shall, by and with the advice of the Senate, appoint the generals of brigade and division, and the general staff, as now authorized by law : Provided, horn ever, that major generals and brigadier generals shall have the appointment of their own aids-de-camp, and the President shall if necessary, apportion the staff field, and general officers among the respective States and Territories from which the volunteers shall tender their services, as he may deem proper.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the volunteers who may be received into the service of the United States by virtue of the provisions of this act, and who shall be wounded or otherwise disabled in the service, shall be entitled to all the benefit which may be conferred on persons wounded in the service of the United States.

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized forthwith to complete all the public armed vessels now authorized by law, and to purchase or charter, arm, equip, and man such merchant vessels and steamboats as, upon examination, may be found fit, or easily converted into armed vessels fit for the public service, and in such number as he may deem necessary for the protection of the seaboard, lake coast, and the general defence of the country.

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That, whenever the militia or volunteers are called and received into the service of the United States, under the provisions of this act, they shall have the organization of the army of the United States, and shall have the same pay and allowances, except as follows, to wit: Privates of infantry, artillery, and riflemen shall receive ten dollars per month, and privates of volunteer mounted corps twenty dollars per month, for their services and the use and risk of their horses.

And its title was so amended as to read "An act providing for the prosecution of the existing war between the United States and the republic of Mexico."

A motion was made to reconsider the vote by which the bill had been passed ; and the question being taken under the operation of the previous question, the vote was not reconsidered.

The bill was then ordered to be sent to the Senate.


On motion of Mr. Haralson, the House took up the bill to increase the rank and file of the army, and concurred in the amendments made thereto by the Senate.

And then, at a very late hour,
The House adjourned.


A letter received at Washington recently by a respectable gentleman, from a merchant in Vera Cruz, dated April 2, in which he remarked that the movements of the Mexican army towards Texas, would depend upon advices then expected from England, and which reached there very shortly afterwards; whereupon the signal for these operations was given, and the result is now before the world. It is argued from this strong fact, that Great Britain is an actor behind the scenes in this attempt of Mexico.


A New Orleans correspondent of the Baltimore Sun says, private letters received there from Gen. T. stated that he should leave five hundred men in his main entrenchment, and march with the remainder of the forces to Point Isabel.

==> We are rejoiced to learn, says the Union, by this evening’s mail, that Captain Seth B. Thornton, and Lieutenant Mason, with two dragoons, had arrived safe in Gen. Taylor’s camp.

Captain Thornton, discovering the ambuscade too late to retreat, had plunged gallantly through the enemy’s ranks, and cut his way with his own sword, with a boldness and intrepidity that is almost incredible. It seems he is not to be killed by accidents of flood or field. He is the same gentleman who so narrowly escaped when the Pulaski was blown up. He had the yellow fever several times in Florida, and has passed through many other hair breadth ’scapes.

When Gen. Worth left the camp, Captain Thornton asked him for his sword. The general buckled it upon him ; and when he heard yesterday of Captain T.’s gallantry, he exclaimed, "That was my sword. I knew it would never be disgraced in his hands. He is as noble and gallant a fellow ever held sword in hand."


Messrs. Savery &. Co., iron founders of Philadelphia, have received an order from the Government to supply at once one hundred tons of cannon halls.

==> We learn that three companies have been ordered from Fortress Monroe, to repair forthwith to the assistance of Gen. Taylor, and that they will be joined by two more companies, daily expected from Baltimore, making five in all. They will take their departure as soon as the necessary conveyance is offered. -- Herald.

==> The troops at Fort Mifflin, on the Delaware, have been ordered to the scene of war.

May 11 -- 2 P. M.

On the receipt of the news from Washington last night, the Mayor of Philadelphia published the following call for a


The President of the United States having made known to Congress that in his opinion the country has, by the failure of negotiation! with Mexico, and the attack by Mexican forces upon the troops of the United States, been placed in a state of war -- the undersigned, Mayor of the city, respectfully invites his fellow-citizens of the city and county to hold a public meeting in Independence Square on WEDNESDAY. 13th inst., at 4 P. M to express their opinion upon public affairs and to adopt such measures as are required by the emergency of the country -- and such as become citizens of this great Republic.

Philadelphia, May 12, 1846.

New York, May 11, 1846.

The city has not wanted for excitement since Saturday noon. Confidence in the army is felt by all, and no half way measures are now spoken of; the honor of the country is at stake, and parties have ceased on this point. The more active and energetic the measures of the President the greater will be his praise.

PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE. The greatest enterprise ever accomplished by Morse s Magnetic Telegraph was performed yesterday in transmitting, letter by letter, and word by word, exclusively for the "Baltimore Sun," the annexed message from the President of the United Stages to Congress, relative to our difficulties with Mexico. It was transmitted entire, as read in Congress yesterday, and was completed in the short space of two hours and a half. This is the first message or lengthy document ever transmitted in full on the Telegraph, and shows what it is capable of performing more than volumes of argument could possibly do.

Messrs. Editors: I am indebted to Messrs. Richie & Heiss, editors of the Union, for the following copy of the message.
To the Senate and
House of Representatives :

The existing state of relations between the United States and Mexico, renders it proper that I should bring the subject to the consideration of Congress. In my message at the commencement of your present session, the state of these relations and the causes which led to the suspension of diplomatic intercourse between the two countries in March, 1845, and the long continued and unredressed wrongs and injuries committed by the Mexican Government on citizens of the United Mates, on their persons and property, were briefly set forth.

As the facts and opinions which were then laid before you were carefully considered. I cannot better express my present convictions of the condition of affairs up to this time than by referring you to that communication. The strong desire to establish peace with Mexico on liberal and honorable terms, and the readiness of this Government to regulate and adjust our boundary, and other causes of difference with that power, on such fair and equitable principles as would lead to permanent relations of the most friendly nature, induced me in September last to seek a reopening of diplomatic relations between the two countries Every measure adopted on our part had for its object the furtherance of these desired results.

In communicating to Congress a succinct statement of the injury which we have suffered from Mexico, and which had been accumulated during the period of more than 20 years, every expression that could tend to inflame the people of Mexico, defeat or delay a pacific result, was carefully avoided. An Envoy of the United States repaired to Mexico, with full powers to adjust every existing difference, but though present on the Mexican soil by agreement between the two governments, invested with full powers, and bearing evidence of the most friendly dispositions, his mission has been unavailing. The Mexican government not only refused to receive him or listen to his propositions, but after a long continued series of menaces, have at last invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil.

It now becomes my duty to state more in detail the origin, progress and failure of that mission. In pursuance of the instructions given in September last, an inquiry was made on the 13th of October, in 1845, in the most friendly terms, through our Consul in Mexico, of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, whether the Mexican Government would receive an Envoy from the United Slates, entrusted with full powers to adjust all the questions in dispute between the two governments, with the assurance that, should the answer be in the affirmative, such an Envoy would be immediately despatched to Mexico. The Mexican Minister, on the 15th of October, gave an affirmative answer to this inquiry, requesting, at the same time, that our naval force at Vera Cruz might be withdrawn, lest its continued presence might assume the appearance of menace and coercion pending the negotiations. This force was immediately withdrawn. On the 10th of November, 1845, Mr. John Slidell, of Louisiana, was commissioned by me as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Mexico and was entrusted with full powers to adjust both the question of the Texan boundary and of indemnification to our citizens. The redress of the wrongs of our citizens naturally and inseparably blended itself with the question of boundary. The settlement of the one question in any correct view of the subject, involved that of the other. I could not for a moment entertain the idea that the claims of our much injured and long suffering citizens, many of which had existed for more than twenty years, should be postponed or separated from the settlement of the boundary question.

Mr. Slidell arrived at Vera Cruz on the 30th of November, and was courteously received by the authorities of that city ; but the Government of Gen. Herrera was then tottering to its fall : the revolutionary party had seized upon the Texas question to effect or hasten its overthrow. Its determination to restore friendly relations with the United Stales, and to receive our Minister to negotiate for the settlement of this question, was violently assailed, and was made the great theme of denunciation against it. The Government of Gen. Herrera, there is good reason to believe, was sincerely desirous to receive our Minister, but it yielded to the storm raised by its enemies, and on the 21st of December refused to accredit Mr. Slidell, upon the most frivolous pretexts. These are so fully and ably expressed in the note of Mr. Slidell of the 24th of December last, to the Mexican Minister of Foreign Relations, herewith transmitted, that I deem it unnecessary to enter into further details on this portion of the subject.

Five days after the date of Mr. Slidell’s note, Gen. Herrera yielded the government to Gen. Paredes, without a struggle, and on the 30th of December resigned the Presidency. This revolution was accomplished solely by the army, the people having taken little part in the contest; and thus the supreme power of Mexico passed into the hands of a military leader. Determined to leave no effort untried to effect an amicable adjustment with Mexico, I directed Mr. Slidell to present his credentials to the government of Gen. Paredes, and asked to be officially received by him.
There would have been less ground for taking this step had Gen. Perades come into power by a regular constitutional succession. In that event his administration would have been considered but a mere constitutional continuance of the Government of General Herrera, and the refusal of the latter to receive our Minister would have been deemed conclusive, unless an intimation had been given by Gen. Perades of his desire to reverse the decision of his predecessor. But the Government of Gen. Paredes owes its existence to a military revolution by which the subsisting constitutional authorities had been subverted.

The form of government was entirely changed, as well as all the high functionaries by whom it was administered. Under these circumstances Mr. Slidell, in obedience to my directions, addressed a note to the Mexican Minister of Foreign Relations, under date of the 1st of March last, asking to be received by that government in the diplomatic character to which he had been appointed. The Minister, in his reply, under date of the 12th of March, reiterated the arguments of his predecessor, and in terms that may be considered as giving just grounds of offence to the government and people of the Untied States, denied the application of Mr. Slidell. Nothing, therefore, remained for our Envoy but to demand his passports, and return to his own country.

Thus the Government of Mexico, though solemnly pledged by official acts in October last to receive and accredit an American envoy, violated their pledge, their plighted faith, and refused the offer of the peaceful adjustment of our difficulties. Not only was the offer rejected, but the indignity of its rejection, enhanced by a manifest breach of faith in refusing to admit the envoy who came because they had bound themselves to receive him. Nor can it be said that the offer was fruitless from the want of opportunity of discussing it, as our envoy was present on their own soil. Nor can it be ascribed to a want of sufficient powers -- our envoy had full powers to adjust every question of difference. Nor was there room for complaint that our proposition (or settlement was unreasonable permission was not even given our envoy to make any proposition whatever. Nor can it be objected that we, on our part, would not listen to any reasonable terms of their suggestion ; the Mexican government refused all negotiations, and have made no proposition of any kind.

In my message at the commencement of the present session. I informed you that upon the earnest appeal, both of the Congress and Convention of Texas, I had ordered an efficient military force to take a position between the Neuces and the Del Norte. This had become necessary to meet a threatened invasion of Texas by the Mexicans, for which extensive military preparation had been made. The invasion was threatened solely because Texas had determined, in accordance with a solemn resolution of the Congress of the United States to annex herself to our Union, and under these circumstances it was plainly our duty to extend our protection over her citizens and soil. This force was concentrated at Corpus Christi and remained there until after I had received such information as rendered it probable that the Mexican government would not receive our envoy.

Meantime, Texas, by the final act of our Congress had become an integral part of our Union. The Congress of Texas, by its action of Dec. 19, 1836, had declared the Rio Del Norte to be the boundary of that Republic. Its jurisdiction had The country between that river and the Del Norte had been represented in the Congress and the Convention of Texas, had thus taken part in the act of Annexation itself, and is now included within one of our Congressional Districts. Our own Congress had moreover, with great unanimity, by the act approved Dec. 31st. 1845, recognized the country beyond the Nueces as a part of our territory by including it within our own revenue system, and a revenue officer to reside within that district has been appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. It became therefore of urgent necessity to provide for the defense of that portion of our country. Accordingly on the 13th of January last instructions were issued to the General in command of these troops to occupy the left bank of the Del Norte.

This river, which is the south western boundary of the State of Texas, is an exposed frontier. From this quarter invasion has been threatened. Upon it, and in its immediate vicinity, in the judgment of high military experience, are the proper stations for the protecting forces of the Government.

In addition to this important consideration, several others occurred to induce this movement Among these are the facilities afforded by the ports of Brazos Santiago and the mouth of the Del Norte for the reception of supplies by sea, the stronger and more healthy military positions the convenience for obtaining a ready and more abundant supply of provisions, as water, fuel and forage, and the advantages which arc afforded by the Del Norte in forwarding supplies to such posts as may be established in the interior and upon the Indian frontier.

The movement of troops to Del Norte was made by the commanding General, under positive instructions to abstain from all aggressive acts towards Mexico or Mexican citizens, and to regard the relations between that Republic and the United States as peaceful, unless she should declare war or commit acts of hostility indicative of a state of war. He was especially directed to protect private property and respect personal rights.

The Army moved from Corpus Christi on the 11th of March, and on the 28th of that month arrived on the left bank of the Del Norte, opposite to Matamoras, where it encamped on a commanding position, which has since been strengthened by the erection of field works. A depot has also been established at Point Isabel, near the Brazos Santiago, 30 miles in the rear of the encampment. The selection of his position was necessarily confined to the judgment of the General in command.

The Mexican forces at Matamoras assumed a belligerent attitude on the 12th of April. Gen. Ampudia, then in command, notified General Taylor to break up his camp within 24 hours, and to retire beyond the Neuces river, and in the event of his failure to comply with these demands announced that arms and arms alone must decide the question. But no open act of hostility was committed until the 24th April. On that day Gen. Arista, who had succeeded to the command of the Mexican forces, communicated to General Taylor, that he considered hostilities commenced, and should prosecute them. A party of dragoons of 53 men and officers were on the same day despatched from the American camp up the Rio del Norte, on its left bank, to ascertain whether the Mexican troops had crossed or wore preparing to cross the river, became engaged with a large body of these troops, and after a short affair in which some 16 were killed and wounded, appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. The grievous wrongs perpetrated by Mexico upon our citizens through out a long period of years remain unredressed ; and solemn treaties, pledging her public faith fur this redress have been disregarded. A government either unable or unwilling, to force the execution of such treaties, fails to perform one its plainest duties.

Our commerce with Mexico has been almost annihilated. It was formerly highly beneficial to both nations; but our merchants have been deterred from prosecuting it by the system of outrage and extortion which the Mexican authorities have pursued against them; whilst their appeals through their own government for indemnity have been made in vain. Our forbearance has gone to such an extreme as to be mistaken in its character. Had we acted with vigor in repelling the insults and redressing the injuries inflicted by Mexico at the commencement, we should doubtless have escaped all the difficultly in which we are now involved.

Instead of this, however, we have been exerting our best efforts to propitiate her good will, upon the pretext that Texas, a nation as independent as herself, thought proper to unite its destinies with our own. She has affected to believe that we have severed have severed her rightful territory, and in official proclamation, and in manifestoes, has repeatedly threatened to make war upon us for the purpose of reconquering Texas. In the meantime we have tried every effort at reconciliation. The cup of forbearance had been exhausted, even before the recent information from the frontier of the Del Norte. But now after reiterated menace. Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. -- She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations.are now at war. As war exists, and notwithstanding efforts to avoid it, exists by the act of Mexico herself, are called upon by every consideration of duty patriotism to vindicate with decision the honor the right, and the interests of our country.

Anticipating the possibility of a crisis like that which has arrived, instructions were given in August last, as a precautionary measure against invasion or threatened invasion, authorizing Gen Taylor, it the emergency required, to accept volunteers not from Texas only, hut from the States of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky. And corresponding letters were addressed to the respective Governors of those States. These instructions were repeated, and in January last soon after the incorporation of Texas into our Union of States, Gen. Taylor was further authorized by the President to make a requisition upon the Executive of that State for such of its militia force as may be needed to repel invasion, or to secure the country against apprehended invasion.

On the second day of March he was again reminded in the event of the approach of any considerable Mexican force, promptly and efficiently to use the authority with which he was clothed to call to him such auxiliary force as he might need. War actually existing, and our territory having been invaded, Gen. Taylor, pursuant to authority invested in him, by my directions, has called on the Governor of Texas for 4 regiments to of State troops, two to be mounted and two to serve on foot; and on the Governor of Louisiana for 4 regiments of infantry, to be sent to him as soon an practicable.

In further vindication of our rights, and the defense of our territory, I invoke the prompt action of Congress, to recognize the existence of the war and to place at the disposition of the Executive the means of prosecuting the war with vigor, and thus hasten the restoration of peace. To this end I recommend that authority should be given to call into the public service a large body of volunteers to serve for not less than six or twelve months, unless sooner discharged.

A volunteer force, is, beyond question, more efficient than any other description of citizen soldiers ; and it is not to be doubted that a number far beyond that would readily rush to the field upon the call of their country. I further recommend, that a liberal provision be made for sustaining our entire military force and furnishing it with supplies and munitions of war.

Most energetic and prompt measures, and the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering forces are recommended to Congress as the most certain and efficient means of bringing the existing collision with Mexico to a speedy and successful termination.

In making these recommendations, I deem it proper to declare that it is my anxious desire, not only to terminate hostilities, speedily, but to bring all matters between this government and Mexico to an early and amicable adjustment; and with this view I shall be prepared to renew negotiations whenever Mexico shall be ready to receive propositions or to make propositions of her own.

I transmit herewith a copy of the correspondence between our Envoy to Mexico and the Mexican Minister for Foreign Affairs, and so much of the correspondence between that Envoy and the Secretary of State, and between the Secretary of War and the General in command on the Del Norte, as are necessary to a full understanding of the subject.

JAMES K. POLK. Washington, May 11th, 1846.