Saturday, November 21, 2020

Dublin Has a Bloody Sunday -- 21-November-1920


Bridgeport Times and Evening Farmer, 22-November 22-1920

100 years ago today, on 21-November-1920, Irish Republican Army soldiers assassinated several British undercover intelligence agents. Later in the day, the unionist Black and Tans attacked a crowd in a football stadium, massacring men, women and children. Still later in the day, three IRA men were arrested and taken to Dublin Castle where they were beaten and shot dead while "attempting to escape." 


Many Dead as Black And
Tans Fire on Crowds At
Ball Game in Croke Park

Reprisals Succeed Killing of British Army Officers in
Gresham Hotel -- Police Had Armored Car and Machine Guns --
Several of Wounded Have Fatal Injuries.

(By EARLE C. REEVES, International News Service Staff Correspondent)
London. Nov. 22 -- More than thirty persons were killed, including 14 army officers and Black and Tan policemen, and 70 were wounded in the terrific outbreak of assassination and reprisal violence which marked "Bloody Sunday" at Dublin, according to a Dublin dispatch to the Evening News today.

Later advices telling of further killings during the night Indicated that the death list might exceed thirty.

A civilian was shot to death in Mount Joy Square at midnight while on his way home.

Two corpses were picked up in Merrion street. A dead man was found in a house near Croke Park. He is believed to have been killed at the park and carried into the house.

A ministerial council was summoned during the morning to discuss the latest Irish outbreak.

The situation Is more menacing than ever before and the Daily Mail reports that the government is making hasty preparations to send heavy troop reinforcements into Ireland. English officials express fears that the campaign of assassination may spread from Ireland to England.

There was intense military activity at Dublin throughout the night.

Many arrests were made.

Fires broke out and there was much shooting.

The curfew regulations at Dublin have been tightened and all train service has been suspended. The mail service via Kingstown, has been suspended also.

The disorders spread outside of Dublin to Drangin, where a civilian was killed in a clash between policemen and Republicans. A number of arrests were made.

Premier Lloyd-George, War Secretary Winston Churchill and Sir Hammar Greenwood. secretary for Ireland, are keeping in constant touch with Dublin Castle by telephone and wireless.

"It is incumbent upon the government to crush the Irish murder campaign and martial law throughout Ireland seems the only sure remedy," said the Morning Post.

The two main attacks on Sunday occurred at the Gresham Hotel where a number of army officers, who had taken part in recent courts martial of Sinn Feiners, were living; and at Croke Park. Sniping broke out at Croke Park during a football match and Black and Tan policemen opened fire upon the crowd.

The attack upon British army officers at the Hotel Gresham was carefully executed and after the shooting most of the assailants immediately disappeared. Nearly all of the officers were in bed when the Sinn Feiners broke into the hotel.

Official dispatches from Dublin Castle say that the trouble at Croke Park was precipitated by Sinn Fein lookouts posted on the top of the fence surrounding the Park. The lookouts were said to have opened fire upon the British soldiers and Black and Tan policemen without warning. There was only a narrow entrance to the Park and panic broke out when the men, women and children spectators made a wild dash for the opening. According to the Daily Herald's Dublin correspondent, the shooting of civilians by Black and Tan policemen at Croke Park was a veritable massacre.

The Black and Tan policemen broke down the barriers around the park and opened fire indiscriminately upon a crowd of women and children," said the Daily Herald despatch.

From other sources, it was learned that the British soldiers and Black and Tan policemen that invaded Croke Park were accompanied by armored cars bearing machine guns. The officers explained that they were looking for two men who had taken part in the killing of army officers at the Gresham hotel during the morning. When the armed forces opened fire upon the crowd, many men, women and children were thrown to the ground and trampled in the rush. Eleven of the wounded were said to have received fatal injuries.

Captain Crawford of the motor repair depot of the army service corps. who was living at- the Gresham hotel with his wife, had a narrow escape. His experience was thus described by the Dublin correspondent of the Daily Express:

"A band of men stopped a hall porter and ordered him to show them Captain Crawford's room. They found the officer sitting beside his bed reading a newspaper. The raiders accused . him of being a Secret Service agent and threatened to shoot him. After menacing him with their pistols for a while, the men departed, warning Captain Crawford to leave Ireland at once if he valued his life.

According to an official announcement by Dublin Castle, there were two different bands of men who attacked army officers and British officials. One consisted of 25 men; the other of 12.

The official announcement said that in addition to the officers killed, four others were desperately wounded.

Dublin Castle said that the high British military officials feared reprisals and special precautions had been taken to prevent them.

"The outbreak was a foul culmination of murderous wickedness on both sides," said the Daily Mail, commenting upon the 'wholesale killings. "Reprisals cannot succeed. They have already brought chaos and shame to England."

"Incalculable harm has been done to the cause of Ireland," said the Times.

Sir Hamar Greenwood, Chief Secretary for Ireland held a long conference with Premier Lloyd-George to devise means of checking the terrific growth of Irish violence.

Following the wave of assassination and reprisal violence on Sunday, Dublin was taken over by British troops. The Dublin population spent a night of terror. Street fighting broke out between Sinn Fein volunteers and Black and Tan policemen and many were wounded on both sides. Several Sinn Feiners were captured. Troops surrounded Dublin while policemen in the city made numerous raids, arresting large numbers of persons.

Threats of assassination have been made against officials of the Irish office. All of the officials are armed. A triple guard of policemen surrounds the Irish office.

In addition to the attack upon British officers and officials in Dublin on Sunday morning, when 14 were killed and the reprisal attack by Black and Tan policemen at Croke Park Sunday afternoon, when many civilians were killed and wounded, Dublin Castle today reported outbreaks in other parts of Ireland where several persons were shot to death.

A detachment of Black and Tans were ambushed near Leat. One was killed and the others were seriously wounded.

Constable Kearney was dangerously wounded at Dewry. Subsequently Black and Tans raided the town. The telegraph wires became silent during the morning and at noon the Irish office announced that no further details had been received of Irish outbreaks.

An earlier dispatch from Cork said that British soldiers and Black and Tans were making wholesale raids. Sinn Fein leaders at Cork claim to have information that the British authorities plan to equip automobiles with poison gas projectors for the protection of military lorries from ambuscades.

The body of an unidentified officer was found near Cork early today.

Near Knappagh, a boy was killed by shots which were said to have been fired from a military lorry.

Raids continued at Dublin throughout today. British soldiers occupied Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor of Dublin) and several leading hotels. All non-resident British officers were recalled to the barracks at Dublin and other Irish cities.

Advices received at 3:10 this afternoon, put the number of dead in Ireland since Saturday at 31.

Troops and Black and Tan police in armored cars surrounded the Cork city hall, Carnegie hall, the Corn Exchange building and all the county buildings at Cork. Search was made for public documents, but it was found that many of the official papers had been removed by unknown persons during the night.

No comments: