Thursday, May 23, 2019

America's Great Seashore Resort -- May 23, 2019
A Pennsylvania Railroad poster invites people to visit Atlantic City.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

New Orleans -- Delta Air Lines -- May 21, 2019
A Delta Air Lines poster invites people to visit New Orleans to see Mardi Gras and hear some jazz.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

The Transatlantic Race -- May 19, 2019

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919
Australian Harry Hawker, who had been chief test pilot and designer at Sopwith, along with navigator Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve, took off from Newfoundland in a Sopwith Atlantic on 18-May-1919 and promptly disappeared. Tune in later to find out what happened. Meanwhile, the US Navy's NC-4 had reached the Azores. NC-1 had to land on the ocean and a ship rescued its crew. NC-3, the flagship, was missing. The other British team, flying a Martinsyde airplane, crashed on takeoff.  

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919

British Fliers Call Own Trip More Perilous
Express Admiration for the American Triumph, but Say Element of Danger Virtually Was Lacking
New York Tribune Spcial Cable Service
(Copyright. 1919, New York Tribune Inc.)

ST. JOHN'S, N. F., May 18. -- Before they took the air this afternoon Harry G. Hawker, of the Sopwith biplane, and Captain Frederick P. Raynham, of the Martinsyde machine, discussed the successful flight of the American NC 'planes to the Azores. Their remarks embodied admiration for the American enterprise, but conveyed the idea that they regarded their own venture as far more hazardous.

The two British fliers have followed with interest the reports of the progress of the United States seaplanes and spoke warmly of the spirit of the crews manning them. At the same time, however, they contended that no comparison could fairly be drawn between the American venture and their own attempt at a direct flight to Ireland in singled-engined machines.

Only Covered Half Distance

They said, first, the American seaplane crews have to make only half the distance at a jump which the trip to the British Isles involves, and the generous distribution of American naval ships along the route robs the flight of any substantial element of personal danger. They argued that this greatly helped the morale of the airmen and also assured them facilities for repairing their machines, which enjoy the further advantage of being able to land on the face of the ocean to rest and refit.

They contended that three machines flying in concert are able to assist each other in event of mishap and this contributes much toward maintaining the spirit among the airmen which is a large factor in insuring success. They said also that in event of any sudden change of weather the seaplane crews could descend to the nearest guardship and await cessation of the storm or abandon the voyage entirely if they thought it necessary, and also could call to their aid in event of any mishap these or other ships which might be in the vicinity.

British Have No Safeguards

On the other hand, the British airmen said, their own venture was something entirely different. They said this without egotism, arguing merely that facts justify this contention. They held that their attempt at a 2,000-mile flight over the ocean, with no safeguards whatever, defies comparison. They argued that flying across the Atlantic without facilities for landing on the ocean or ships for making repairs involves a strain on the fibre and physical stamina of the airmen from which the Americans were virtually free.

They emphasized the fact that if any mishap befalls them they are powerless to save themselves, and that they lack wireless to summon aid, so unless some ship happens to be in their immediate vicinity they are lost beyond recall. They cheerfully agreed that the American fliers showed splendid qualities in their undertaking, and the fact of their getting through without requiring to descend to either the ocean surface or to any guardship is evidence that the machines were in splendid condition and well handled. They are probably equal to a longer flight, and even to a flight from St. John's to the Irish coast, the British airmen said.

They contended they are proposing a flight through an area much further north and far more stormy than the route the Americans took; that ships along the route are fewer and the chances of rescue less, and that, whereas the American machines can make certain forms of repairs while in flight, the least accident to the British 'planes means ruin.

Martinsyde Plane Wrecked in "Take Off"; Crew Hurt, but Not Seriously
Start Watched As Death Trip
Spectators in Fear That Daring Flier Goes to His Doom

ST. JOHN'S, N. F., May 19. -- Up to 4 o'clock this morning no word had been received from Harry G. Hawker, the Australian flier, since he started on his transatlantic flight. Weather reports from the Atlantic were favorable and indicated improvement in some of the storm areas.

If Hawker's estimated speed of 100 miles an hour were maintained, he would have been more than 1,400 miles out at 4 o'clock this morning, or about three-fourths of the way to Ireland.

ST. JOHN'S. N. F., May 18. -- Into the jaws of almost certain death, Harry G. Hawker, the famous Australian aviator, drove his slender Sopwith biplane over the eastern horizon at 1:45 o'clock, New York time, this afternoon, in an effort to win for the British glory of the first transatlantic flight. He hopes to reach Ireland before the American NC planes can effect a crossing at Lisbon.

With him as navigator went Lieutenant Commander Mackenzie Grieve of the British navy, whose task it will be to guide the tiny plane in a true line over the 1,900-mile course that separates Newfoundland from the shores of Ireland. They expect to make the flight in nineteen hours.

Just as the Sopwith machine flashed across the Martinsyde hangar in a terrific burst of speed, Captain Frederick P. Raynham and his one-legged hero navigator, Major C. W. F. Morgan, rivals of the Sopwith team, started up their machine to race across the ocean.

Martinsyde Plane Wrecked

As the Martinsyde biplane, even tinier than the Sopwith, started across the ground the axle of the landing carriage snapped, wrecking the machine and injuring both men, but apparently not seriously. Captain Raynham collapsed immediately after the crash, but later recovered.

Hawker had his machine in readiness shortly after 1 o'clock at the Mount Pearl aerodrome. The weather conditions were ideal, with a clear sky and a slight northwest wind, which will greatly favor the machine.

The biplane took the air after a short run across the field exactly at 17:45 Greenwich mean time (1:45 p.m. New York time). Hawker maneuvered in circles until he attained the desired altitude, and then, opening the throttle of his engine, he headed at tremendous speed for this city, five miles away.

The machine passed directly over St. John's and over the Quidividi aerodrome, where the Martinsyde biplane was being prepared, across the hills in the distance and quickly disappeared from view. Ten minutes later the signal station on top of the hill reported the machine had passed from view.

Landing Carriage Dropped

Just after passing the Quidividi field, Hawker released the landing gear of his machine, which dropped into the sea, in full sight of the thousands of people at the Martinsyde aerodrome watching Captain Raynham. Hawker hoped by doing this to lighten and accelerate the natural speed of his machine from 100 to 106 miles an hour.

Hawker's start was made in face of weather conditions which he characterized as "not yet favorable, but possible." He and his navigator considered the hazards of the attempt and decided to stake everything on an effort to "beat the Americans."

Overnight reports to the meteorological station had showed increased atmospheric pressures, smoother seas and fair barometer conditions. Although winds and pressures were not all they hoped for. Hawker and Grieve ordered their hand satchels packed and made ready for the start.

Hawker considered weight as of utmost importance. Lifting Mackenzie Grieve's bag, he found it heavy, and inquired solicitously if he couldn't "dispense with pajamas" on the trip. When asked if he thought he would have a chance to sleep during the voyage Hawker replied:

"We'll have a long sleep coming at the end of it."

Hawker and Grieve, in their eleventh-hour effort to wrest transatlantic flight honors ?rom the United States naval 'planes, are flying over a course all their own, figured out last night and this morning with the one object in mind of "how to head off the Americans."

As soon as they had finished breakfast this morning, Hawker and Grieve hurried to the offices of the Royal Air Force meteorologists. Finding conditions improved a little, though not as favorable as they would have demanded had not the Americans been well started on their passage, they went direct to the Mount Pearl plateau, where the Sopwith was waiting in the airdrome, and began preparation for the flight.

They were wholly calm at the start. Methodically, and without the slightest trace of nervousness, they climbed aboard their craft and set to work dispassionately- Hawker's confidence in his navigator and in his engine were absolute, he said quietly.

Opens Throttle to Full

After a preliminary spin of the motor Hawker opened his throttle to the full and the ground crew were forced to call for help to hold the 'plane in place. Hawker throttled "down" again, said a few final words, and then gave the word to knock out the supporting blocks from beneath the craft as he opened wide the throttle.

Hawker followed his announced intention when he dropped the undercarriage of his 'plane. Some persons thought the act was intended as a challenge to his rival, Raynham, and quoted almost the last word of Hawker before he started.

"How about old 'Tinsides?' Tell Raynham I'll greet him at Brooklands, England."

The wireless sent word of Raynham's mishap to Hawker and Mackenzie Grieve after they had put to sea. Opinion here is that one result of the message will be the cutting down of Hawker's speed, as the Sopwith will not be forced to racing speed now that its rival has been eliminated from the overseas contest.

Have Aid of Sun

At the start the sun was only a little over two hours beyond the meridian. The flying adventurers had its aid in navigating for four or five hours as they sped eastward. After that they plunged into darkness over the ocean, with the prospect of starlight and moonlight to break the monotony of sky and sea at night, and to serve as navigation guides.

Mackenzie Grieve declared before the start that the Sopwith would head straight for Ireland.

"If we strike Ireland anywhere we will have found our mark." he said, "but If we hit England we will be nearer home."

Indications to-night were that westerly winds would favor the fliers for the first 1,000 miles of their course. The remainder of the way will be "ticklish" sailing, and it is thought possible that Grieve will have to "bend" his course somewhat south to avoid wind and weather dangers.

A large part of Grieves's work will be in noting observations of air currents encountered.

'Although Atlantic air currents can never be marked," he said, "I hope to compile observations that will make the transatlantic passage possible with fewer uncertainties for later fliers than those which confront pioneers on the trackless way.

"We are relying chiefly on astronomical positions which we plan to obtain by use of the sextant, getting an hourly sun altitude in the daytime and working with the North Star at night. Should thick weather obscure the sky we are prepared to use the clouds for calculating purposes, although we admit the results would be only approximate."

Not more than sixty people were present to witness the departure of the intrepid airmen and these were chiefly competitors, aviators and newspapermen. Among them were Rear Admiral Mark Kerr, of the British navy, who is to navigate the giant Handley-Page machine in its transatlantic attempt, and his pilot, Major Brackley of the British Air Force.

Captain Alcock and Lieutenant Brown, who are to pilot the Vickers Vimy bomber now on its way here aboard the steamship Glendevon, also witnessed the start. All loudly praised the manner in which Hawker handled the Sopwith in his take off. Concentrated rations are being carried on the Sopwith for food. The fuel supply was 340 gallons of gasolene.

Wind Blamed for Wreck

A big factor in the accident to Raynham's Martinsyde 'plane was said to a lack of full wind opposition. He was trying to "take off" on his east and west field with a wind exactly north east. Full head wind is declared to be essential for a rise with a 'plane as heavily laden as Raynham's.

The weight of the plane was near three tons, and the great "heft" of is believed to have brought it down after a rise of a few feet had been gained. The undercarriage was admittedly weak, and collapsed under the strain. Had Raynham been able to fly directly into the wind he probably would have attained flying speed before the axle buckled.

Missed by Twenty-five Yards

Raynham would not add to the statement he made to friends immediately after he had recovered from the temporary collapse he suffered when his craft broke down. This statement was:

"I was just beginning to get a lift. I felt the under carriage weaken, and pulled back on the control stick in an attempt to assist the machine clear of the ground. But the propeller struck and we spilled. Another twenty-five yards and we would have been away."

Hawker had provided against such a mishap by installing an all-steel under-carriage on the Sopwith for safety in "taking off" and a device for dropping it when well off the ground. Hawker also had installed a detachable primer and band starting magneto, both of which were left behind when he dropped his under-carriage.

After Hawker dropped his under-carriage his machine was left without any landing gear at all, and should he be successful in crossing the Atlantic, he must risk crashing his machine when landing.

Small steel rails or skids had been provided to help lessen the danger, with which it is hoped the machine may glide along the ground and come to a stop.

There is believed to be but one chance in a thousand that the speedy Sopwith biplane may make the flight successfully, but to insure that once chance every mechanical and meteorological detail must be in favor of the airmen and their machine.

Small Lifeboat Attached

When Hawker and his aide took their places in the small fuselage of the plane they were incased in full-length, non-sinkable suits. This, together with the ingeniously constructed lifeboat which forms part of the cowling of the fuselage, is their only means of immediate safety should they be compelled to alight on the ocean in the course of their flight.

This boat is said to possess a considerable degree of seaworthiness and is fitted with provisions and signaling devices. In case he alights on land, Hawker had early arranged to release and drop the boat by means of an automatic device controlled by a button near the pilot's seat.

Unlike the huge seaplanes of the American Navy which flew from Trepassey to the Azores on Friday last the Sopwith machine is a purely land type of airplane. It has no pontoon to keep it afloat or permit of its being towed in case it is compelled to alight on the ocean. It is a small biplane of the scout type with a wing spread of only forty-six feet, and an overall length of thirty-one feet. It is driven forward by a Twelve-cylinder Rolls Royce 375-horsepower engine, fitted with a quadruple ignition system.

Depends on 19-Hour Flight

Hawker expected his machine to make an average speed of 100 miles an hour at the start, which be hoped would be accelerated to 106 miles as soon as he released the under-carriage of the machine. A favorable wind might increase this speed. All his calculations, however, were based on nineteen-hour flight for the 1,900 mile to Ireland.

Hawker and his companion, Grieve, are making their flight as contenders for "The London Daily Mail's" prize of $50,000 to the first successful aviator who flies across the Atlantic while observing the rules of the contest. Under these rules the flight must be completed within seventy-two hours of the start, and if the machine is compelled to alight on the water it may get off again unassisted.

Commander Grieve announced his intention of flying straight out to sea for a distance of 600 miles and then heading the machine into the regular transatlantic steamship lane. The fliers expect to land in the Brooklands aerodrome just outside of London.

Navigate by Sextant

Grieve will depend entirely upon his sextant and compass for navigating the machine for use with which the 'plane carries specially tabulated calculations drawn up before the start.

Heading east into the night they expect to meet the sun on its westward path at a time to give them a good observation for their course to approach the Irish coast, an well as to determine their exact position.

During the night Grieve said he would "shoot the stars" every two hours to obtain the position of the biplane and keep it on its course. Hawker expected to fly at an average altitude of 8,000 feet, although he said the atmospheric conditions during the flight would be the determining factor in this matter.

The romantic aspect of the adventurous flight attracted the people of St. John's to the hangar for the takeoff. While all expressed admiration for the airmen, fear was expressed on all sides that the pair were riding to certain death in defying the ocean in so frail a craft.

The unknown fate which overtook Andre when he set out in a free balloon to float over the North Pole several years ago was present in the minds of all, as was also Major Wood's disastrous start from England in a Short biplane a few weeks ago. While Major Wood was fortunate in being rescued, it was chiefly due to the fact that his machine fell into the sea so close to land. The chances of Hawker in case of engine trouble are not nearly so good.

Many Air Prizes Won by Hawker
Over-Atlantic Dash is Climax of Notable Career of Australian

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919
Harry G. Hawker, chief of the Sopwith team that flew yesterday for Ireland, is an Australian, 27 years old, who has won fame in the development of aviation. He was one of the few mechanics who rose to the rank of flier under the tutelage of Tom Sopwith, the famous British aviator, since turned manufacturer.

Yesterday's attempt to cross the Atlantic, with its probability of disaster and death for the fliers, was but an incident in the checkered career of Hawker.

Hawker is known throughout the British empire as the man who refuses to fly by the rules of others. He is credited with making his own, defying custom, and usually, at least, accomplishing his purpose. Practically every autograph hunter in the British isles, chiefly among the feminine signature hunters, has his name between the covers of an album.

Hawker first attained world fame, when in August, 1913, he attempted to win the $25,000 prize offered by "The Daily Mail" to the first aviator to encircle the British isles in a hydroplane. The flight was to have been made in seventy-two hours.

The daring aviator ascended from Oban at 6:40 o'clock in the morning before as great a crowd of spectators as ever had witnessed a flight there. He traversed 1,043 of the 1,540-mile course, remained in the air for seven hours and then fell into the sea because of engine trouble. But he broke several records and no bones by so doing, and the judges decided he had accomplished almost as much for aviation by his efforts as if he had completed the trip about the islands.

"The London Daily Mail" agreed to give him a consolation prize of $5,000 for his pains and he was awarded a medal by a group of aviators, who complimented him upon his service to the science of flying.

In competition with the greatest aviators in Europe, Hawker won the British Michelin prize for continuous flight. He created what in 1912 was a new record by remaining in the air for eight hours and twenty-three minutes.

He has made scores of long distance flights in Europe. He made two new world records for long distance. Also he won a prize offered by an aviation organization in London in 1916 for hanging up a new world's record for altitude. He reached an altitude of 28,500 feet under an official test.

Martinsyde Mishap Not Unexpected
Experts Always Doubted Whether Small 'Plane Would Cross in Safety

Neither of the Martinsyde fliers whose machine was smashed at the start yesterday, set out on their adventure with eyes closed to the danger that confronted them. That they escaped with as slight injuries as early dispatches indicate came more as a surprise to those who had watched the flight than otherwise.

Before Captain F. P. Raynham and Captain Morgan took to the clouds or as near to them as they got yesterday, wagers were being made as to their ability to negotiate the trip or any part of it without the loss of life of at least one of the two. The odds always were in favor of death rather than the survival of the fliers.

A dispatch to The Tribune April 1 said:

"Spectators believe the chances of the Martinsyde men escaping death arw very slight, owing to the smallness of their machine, the lack of a boat or other life saving apparatus and the strain on the occupants during the long journey."

But Raynham, who had faced death in many forms so often as to have become contemptuous of it, belittled these pessimistic forecasts of disaster. He said the dangers of flying over water were not as great as those of flying over land, that he had remained in the air longer while flying over land than would be required on this voyage and that he had a feeling that he would make the flight without difficulty.

"If we fall in the water there is not the danger of being dashed to pieces that always confronts one in a fall on the ground," he said. "Besides our rubber suits should serve to save us if we fall into the water any distance from the boats."

Navy Confidence in Safety of Flagship Ebbs as Perilous Gale Sweeps Sea
Lost 40 Hours Without Trace
Huge Screen of Warships Swings in Half Circle to Aid

New York Tribune, 19-May-1919

LONDON. May 18. -- Lloyds reports the steamship Iona with the crcew of the American seaplane NC-1 aboard, arrived at Horta Sunday, and that the NC-1 sank 120 miles off the Island of Flores.

WASHINGTON, May 18. -- Apprehension as to the safety of Commander John H. Towers and his crew of four men, who in the seaplane NC-3 have been lost at sea for more than forty hours, had begun to-night to displace the feeling of confidence among naval officials that the transatlantic fliers would be found by searching vessels. No word had been received from the NC-3 since 5:15 o'clock yesterday morning, when Commander Towers reported that his 'plane, the flagship of the squadron, was off her course some 300 miles from the Island of Fayal, Azores. Dispatches from Rear Admiral Jackson, aboard the U. S. S. Melville at Ponta Delgada, Azores, to-night said a gale was sweeping the seas northwest of the Azores and that high waves were running.

The navy, with its vast force of vessels, concentrated to aid in the transatlantic attempt, was bending all of its energies to the finding of the lost fliers.

Two battleships, the Florida and Texas, and nearly a score of destroyers were scouring the sea over a wide area all day to-day and to-night.

Dangerous Gale Rises

The fog which, it is supposed, forced the NC-1 to the open sea when within a few short miles of Corvo Headland, the objective point of the aerial argonauts, had been dissipated by strong westerly winds this morning which increased to a gale by 9 a. m, and whipped up a nasty, choppy sea, the most dangerous condition possible for a seaplane riding on the surface of the ocean.

Messages received from Rear Admiral Jackson late to-night telling of the damage to the NC-1 caused by the heavy seas running at the time the 'plane was found served to increase the apprehension felt for the safety of the crew of the NC-3. The lower 'planes of the NC-1 were badly damaged, one pontoon was entirely carried away, the right wing was badly broken, the left wing ribs were damaged and the elevators were smashed.

Naval vessels standing by in an effort to salvage the big boat reported that the seas were running so high if was impossible to save it at this time. It was pointed out that only good fortune could possibly save the NC-3 from even more serious damage, since it is handicapped by the extra weight of its crew.

Rescue Work Difficult

Using Corvo Island as an operating base, the screen of battleships and destroyers were sweeping westward in a great semicircle in an effort to catch sight of the NC-3 or pick up radio distress signals. The high winds and heavy seas prevailing made the work of the rescue party most difficult.

The main element of hope in the situation, as viewed by naval officials tonight, was the fact that the weather forecasts predict diminishing winds and abated seas late in the night and Monday morning. It was thought that if Commander Towers's frail craft could ride out the gale successfully until morning the probability of rescue would be greatly increased, since a veritable swarm of destroyers and other naval craft, gathered from wide distances, were being concentrated over the area to the northwest of the Azores.

Each of the seaplanes carried sufficient food ant1 water for six days when the squadron left Trepassey Bay. The condition in which the NC-1 was found was described in the following message to the Navy Department from the cruiser Columbia:

"NC-1 right wing badly broken, pontoon carried away, elevators broken, fabric left wing ribs badly damaged. Condition of sea too rough to salvage 'plane. Fairfax standing by awaiting better conditions. Crew of NC-1 in good shape, now on Columbia. NC-4 in good condition and awaiting favorable weather before proceeding to Ponta Delgada. Scouting lines scouting to westward for NC-3. Strong northwesterly wind and rough seas prevailing."

The members of the crew of NC-3 in addition to Commander Towers are:
Commander H. C. Richardson, Lieutenant D. N. McCulloch, Lieutenant Commander R. A. Lavender and Machinist L. R. Moore.

British Ministry Reports Sky Clear

LONDON. May 18. -- Meteorological conditions favorable for a continuation of the transatlantic flight of the American naval seaplane NC-4 from the Azores to Lisbon are reported by the Air Ministry to-day. The statement says:

"Conditions generally are favorable for continuing the flight to Lisbon. The barometric pressure is falling somewhat in the Azores. There is mist at Ponta Delgada, but the winds are light and westerly.

"Conditions on the direct Atlantic route are improving."

PONTA DELGADA, May 18 (By The Associated Press). -- The NC-4, which arrived safely at Horta Saturday morning, reported that, the weather there early to-day was unfavorable for a continuation of the flight to Ponta Delgada.

At 11:15 o'clock this morning nothing had yet been heard from the NC-3, reported lost in the fog off Fayal.

The cruiser Columbia at Horta, Fayal, reported shortly after noon that she had intercepted messages passing between destroyers to the effect that the missing seaplane NC-3 had been forced to alight between Stations 17 and 18, where the seaplane was last heard from at. 9:15 o'clock. Greenwich time, Saturday morning. The Columbia reported that destroyers were searching for the flagship of the seaplane fleet.

A wireless message from the destroyer Harding said the destroyer Fairfax was towing the NC-1 into Horta. The crew of the NC-1, headed by Lieutenant-Commander Bellinger, are expected at Horta to-night on the steamship Ionia, which rescued them ninety-five miles west of Fayal.

The NC-1 was found by the Harding thirty miles from the point where the crew abandoned it at 10 o'clock Sunday morning. The Harding reported the right wing and one pontoon of the NC-1 were damaged and that a propeller had been broken.

The steamship Ionia is probably the Greek ship of that name. It left New York May 4 for Norfolk. Arriving at Norfolk May 6, the Ionia departed the same day for Gibraltar and would have been in the path of the transatlantic flight.

British Bow to U. S. Fliers; Pity Own Men
Grahame - White Says Flight to Azores Is Object Lesson to Admiralty

LONDON, May 18 (By The Associated Press). -- Claude Grahame-White, the aviator, although not unduly surprised that the Americans succeeded in accomplishing the most dangerous part of the transatlantic flight, say he is thoroughly delighted with the great enterprise shown. He says that the flight is an object lesson to the British authorities because, as far as the British machines are concerned, the flight means life or death, as there is no chain of destroyers to pick them up if they meet with an accident.

J. A. Whitehead, managing director of the Whitehead Aircraft Company, says that irrespective of nationality the great feat of crossing nearly 1,100 miles of open sea marks a tremendous era in the progress of aviation. The Americans, he says, had the advantage of a patrolled course and, therefore, the probabilities of life and death did not enter into their calculations as they must with the British aviators.

The American flight was a good one in the opinion of Colonel V. L. Henderson, a pilot and member of the House of Commons for Glasgow, but with a trail of destroyers was comparatively easy and without risk to the airmen. He added:

"It makes one sad to think our men should have so little practical assistance from the Air Ministry. Even the Americans admit our men are as good as theirs. There is no doubt our machines are better."

G. Hold Thomas, an authority on aeronautics and who was identified with several flying feats some years ago, attributes the American success to "organization" and "national effort." He added that criticism of the Admiralty is not helping the British contestants. He said his suggestion that destroyers or even captured German submarines be placed along the route from Newfoundland to Ireland met with the response: "The expense, is too enormous."

Mrs. Hawker, wife of Harry Hawker, the Australian aviator, said: "Our boys have had no help at all. Even the weather reports are unsatisfactory."

Lt. Parsons Doubts Sea Trade in Air
Pranks of Ocean Must Be Tamed First He Says;
Praises NC's Exploits

The feat accomplished by the NC-4 in its successful flight from America to the Azores will go down in history as one of the most daring exploits of the air, but it is extravagant to think it opens new vistas for commercial ocean flying, in the opinion of Lieutenant E. C. Parsons, a noted aviator, who passed three years at the front and has fifteen German machines to his credit.

Lieutenant Parsons joined the Lafayette Escadrille in 1915 and became a member of the Guynemer flying corps when the former organization joined the American flying forces. He wears two French and two Belgian decorations. When seen at the American Flying Club. 297 Madison Avenue, yesterday, he differed with Major Thomas S. Baldwin, who declared in The Tribune yesterday that the achievement of the NC-4 marks the beginning of ocean travel by air on a large scale.

"I regard the feat of the NC-4 as possibly the most remarkable flying exploit in the history of aviation," he said. It was, however, a combination of daring, good luck and careful preparation. Without the lane of American destroyers it is questionable whether I the feat would have been accomplished.

"As far as making airplanes for passenger and freight, carrying is concerned, that is quite without the bounds of probability. I understand that hundreds of thousands of dollars have been expended by the Navy Department in preparation for the flights of the NC machines. The cost is too great to make the use of airplanes across the ocean for commercial purposes profitable."

Sees Future for "Blimps"

Lieutenant Parsons was of the opinion that lighter than air machines stand a much better chance of becoming ocean carriers than heavier than air craft. He believes the "blimp" balloons eventually may be perfected to permit their use in passenger travel across the Atlantic.

Lieutenant Parsons thinks the attempt of Harry Hawker, the British aviator, to cross the Atlantic is "nothing short of suicidal."

"If Hawker succeeds," he said, "he will have accomplished something in the way of daring which no human being ever achieved. But frankly I do not see how he can do it. He has none of the protective and guiding features of our NC 'planes and dropped his wheels when he left Newfoundland.

Even if he should succeed in crossing he will have a pretty tough time of it in landing on the Irish coast. It is the most devilish-daring thing any aviator ever attempted."

Air Route Maps Over Sea Needed

Now that aero flights have been extended over the Atlantic distance and with an ease which seems to assure future flights over seas in all directions, aeronauts are considering two important projects: mapping of aerial routes over the ocean, as they are now being mapped over land, and establishment of landing fields with special reference to convenience of outbound and incoming transoceanic aircraft.

To the average landlubber the sky may seem sufficiently clear of obstacles to need no special road marking. It used to be the feeling of the early aeronaut that once in the sky he needed no guide posts, but could fly in any direction with complete freedom.

Although this remains true in a sense, it has been found convenient and practical to map out air routes which are just as definite as ocean routes for steamships. It was found that if aeroplanes were to travel long distances and land without loss of time well mapped routes would have to be provided and regular supply stations established.

41,058 Miles of Sky Roads

The work of mapping the routes for the United States army was intrusted to Captain Archie Miller, of the Division of Military Aeronautics, whose work comprised the projected laying out of 44,0S8 miles of sky roadways. More than 75 per cent of this work already has been accomplished.

As flying over the ocean, accelerated by the success of the flight to the Azores, is extended, it will be necessary, in the opinion of experts, to map the routes over the ocean just as they are now being mapped over the land.

Landing Places Essential

First consideration will be given to distance; aerial routes will be selected with special reference to the nearness of land points between which the flights are to be made. Then will come the question of providing possible landings in midocean. It would not be practicable to mark each air route with a line of warships, as was done in the case of the United States naval 'planes.

Aeronauts believe ocean flying will develop non-stop flying and that in a short time a flight from New York to any part of Europe will not be considered unusual. But meantime, to protect the fliers and to help develop non- stop flying, some means must be found to extend help to any machine the might have to come to the surface of the water in midocean because of mishap.

It has been proposed that one transoceanic air route be mapped out as an experiment, probably the route from Newfoundland to the Azores. The idea is to mark the route with floating stations where supplies of oil, gas and j airplane parts may be had. Scientific data from the men who are now flying the Atlantic will be awaited to determine whether the weather and air conditions over this route warrant its being selected as a permanent air roadway.

Zu Zu Rag -- May 19, 2019
Max E Fishler published "Zu Zu Rag," "A Snappy Rag Full of Ginger," in 1916.

Friday, May 17, 2019

She Coasted Near on to Two Mile -- May 17, 2019

Philadelphia Ledger, 29-May-1919
I love Fontaine Fox's The Toonerville Trolley That Meets All the Trains.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

One US Plane Reaches Azores -- May 16, 2019

Washington Star, 17-May-1919
On 08-May-1919, three Navy Curtiss flying boats (NC-1, NC-3 and NC-4) set out to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. There's a long story about NC-2. The first leg was from Naval Air Station Rockaway, New York to Halifax, Nova Scotia. 100 years ago today, on 16-May-1919, they set out on the second and longest leg, from Halifax to the Azores.  

NC-1 Flew Close Behind Sister Plane. NC-3 Delayed by Getting Off Course. 100 Miles From Island Goal
Overseas Trip, Which Navy Does Not Consider a Contest, Is Expected to Be Continued to Lisbon, Portugal, Tomorrow.

The American naval seaplane NC-4, under Lieut. Commander Albert C. Read, has attained its first objective in the transatlantic flight, having landed safely at Horta, Island of Fayal, Azores, at 9:20 o'clock this morning, Washington time, after winging her way from Trepassey Bay, Newfoundland, in fifteen hours and thirteen minutes.

The NC-1, under Lieut. Commander Patrick N. L. Bellinger, was close behind the NC-4, but the NC-3, flagship of Commander John H. Towers, was last reported at 5:15 a.m., Washington time, as off her course somewhere between station ships 17 and 18, about 100 miles from Horta.

Although no word had come from the NC-3 and NC-1 since early morning, naval officials were confident early this afternoon that both these transatlantic seaplanes had reached the Azores. At last report, they were only a short distance away.


Original plans were for the planes to land at Ponta Delgada, and it may be that the NC-1 and NC-3 will continue on to that port, which is about 150 miles east of Horta. Fog evidently caused Commander Read to land at Horta, and officials here assumed that after taking fuel from the cruiser Columbia, he would continue to Ponta Delgada to spend the night before taking flight for Lisbon, Portugal, on the next leg of the overseas voyage tomorrow morning.

Hours Ahead of Schedule.

Commander Read reached Horta several hours ahead of the schedule time for the flight, officials having estimated that twenty hours would be required for the seaplanes to reach Ponta Delgada.

Had he continued to that port at the speed maintained throughout the long voyage. Commander Read would have covered the 1,350 miles in a little more than seventeen hours.

The message to the Navy Department on the arrival of the NC-4 came by cable from Ponta Delgada and was more than an hour in reaching Washington. the department receiving it at 10:59 a.m. Officials explained that it was necessary to rely on the cable because the wireless set on the tender Melville at Ponta Delgada was not powerful enough to carry to the United States.

"Lame Duck" First.

The fact that the NC-4 was the first of the three planes to reach the Azores drew comment from naval officers here. This ship was the "lame duck" of the division from the time it started from Rockaway Beach, Long Island. Three of the four liberty motors which drove the ship to the Azores were installed after it left Rockaway because of trouble with the original motors.

Commander Read was forced to land at Chatham Light, Mass.. on the first leg of his flight to Newfoundland. He remained at Chatham for several days repairing.

He was again forced to make a landing on the way from Halifax to Trepassey to make repairs, and at Trepassey another new motor was put in he plane before it started overseas.

Despite these handicaps, the NC-4 led the way to the Azores practically all night.

Lisbon Goal of Flight.

The machine which will achieve the distinction of being first to cross the Atlantic ocean will be that which arrives at Lisbon. Portugal, the first European landing place of the flight and starting point of the last leg to Plymouth. England.

While the performance of the NC-4 is viewed as the most spectacular aviation achievement in the history of heavier-than-air craft. Commander Read has not equaled the American Navy record either for endurance or distance in seaplane flying. The greatness of the achievement. It was said, lies in the fact that it was entirely overseas.

On last April 25. Lieut. Commander H. B. Grow piloted the Navy seaplane F-5 for twenty hours and ten minutes' continuous flight, in the vicinity of Hampton roads. Va.. covering a total of 1,250 miles, the wind velocity averaging 20 to 30 miles per hour throughout the time of the flight. The F-5, however, circled around In the region of the air station in her endurance test.

Carried Big Supply of "Gas."

A belated report from Trepassey bay, received at the Navy Department today. said the three transatlantic planes carried 1,630 gallons of gasoline each, when they made the start for the Azores. The NC-4 and the NC-1 carried their full crews of six men each, but the NC-3, flagship, carried only five men, Lieut. Commander Braxton Rhodes having been left behind. With Rhodes aboard, the message said, the NC-3 would have carried an excess of 185 pounds over either of the other planes.

The successful flight was made possible. the report said, by the tireless work of the crews of the planes and the co-operation of all Navy personnel at Trepassey bay. Weather data assembled through the chain of reporting ships established by the department, it continued, bad been an important factor and the weather forecasts upon which Commander Towers made his decisions were complete and accurate.

Signals Grow Weak.

Shortly after 4 o'clock this morning the Bar Harbor station sent the following message to the Navy Department:

"Last heard of seaplanes at 3:21 and signals getting weaker. However, freak work may avail itself early in morning, and probabilities are we may hear the seaplanes until 6 a.m."

The following cablegram from the U. S. S. Melville, transatlantic flight station ship at Ponta Delgada, Azores, was received at the Navy Department at 4:30 o'clock this morning:

"The NC-4 passed station ship No. 14 at 7:06 G. M. P. (3:06 Washington time)."

The fourteenth station ship is the U. S. S. Cowell, located more than 50 miles distant from Trepassey bay. Communication no longer was possible by way of Atlantic coast radio stations, and messages regarding the progress of the seaplanes were being relayed to the Azores and from there cabled to the Navy Department over a special cable.

Reach Half-Way Mark.

The half-way mark was reached early today by the American seaplanes. At 3 o'clock this morning the Navy Department received an intercepted message from the seaplane NC-4 directed to the Cape Race station saying that the three planes had passed station ship No. 11, approximately 650 miles from the starting point. The message from the NC-4, which was intercepted by the naval radio station at Bar Harbor, Me., read as follows:

"NC-4 to Cape Race. Passed No. 10 about 4:50 Greenwich time, and passed No. 11 about 5:15. Now nearly to No. 13. Thought you had lost me."

"See You Later."

At 1:40 a.m.. Washington time. Bar Harbor intercepted the following message for the Cape Race station from the NC-4:

"Great old man. See you later."

At 1:41 a.m. the following message was intercepted from the NC-3 to the NC-1:

"Answer. Have message for you."

Bar Harbor intercepted at 1:43 a.m. a message from the NC-1 to the NC-3 saying:


Two minutes later this message was intercepted from the NC-3 to the NC-1:

"Answer. Have message for you."

The plane NC-3 three minutes later sent to the NC-1 as follows:


Two minutes later this message was repeated.

NC-1 Asks Wind Velocity.

At 1:51 the NC-1 signaled to the destroyer No. 11:

"Please give me the velocity and direction of the wind in miles per hour and in true degrees."

At 1:52 the NC-1 said:

"Received. Thanks."

At 1:53 the NC-4 radioed to destroyer No. 12:

"Make 'V's so I can tell if you are near."

The conversation between the fliers continued with the NC-1 saying:

"That makes 15 miles and 300 degrees true."

At 1:56 the NC-1 signaled back to the destroyer:

"Received. O. K. finished."

Progress Near Corvo Island.

The NC-4 passed station ship No. 18, about 100 miles from Corvo Island (destroyer Craven), at 09:45 Greenwich (5:45 a.m. Washington time); the NC-3 passed station ship No. 13 (destroyer Bush), at 06:23 Greenwich (2:23 a.m. Washington time); the SC-1 passed station ship No. 18 at 10:14 Greenwich (6:14 a.m. Washington time); the NC-l passed station ship No. 16 at 09:17 Greenwich (6:17 a.m. Washington time).

A delayed official report from Trepassev bav to the Navy Department said that at 2:25 o'clock, Washington time, it was estimated that the three planes were 125 nautical miles ahead of their schedule. At that time the Cape Race radio station still was in communication with the NC-4. The message follows:

"Progress of the three seaplanes from Trepassey to the Azores is ahead of the previously estimated distance at 06:25 Greenwich (2:25 a.m. Washington time) by 125 knots. At the above time the planes were reported as having passed station ship No. 13. 650 miles out. Capo Race (British radio) was still in communication with the NC-4."

Relay News to Navy Department.

Messages sent by the "Columbuses of the air" from plane to plane to plane and to the destroyers that lined the 1,350-mile route to the Azores, the end of the first lap, were intercepted by the Cape Race, N. F., radio station, relayed to the American naval radio station at Bar Harbor, Me., and thence sent to the Navy Department. These messages showed the three planes to be making excellent time and indicated that all was going well.

During the first 700 miles of flight the planes averaged approximately eighty-five miles an hour. Navy officials estimated that should this average be maintained -- and it was believed it could be with daylight spreading over the mid-Atlantic -- the planes would reach their immediate objective, Ponta Delgada., Azores, about 9 a.m. Washington time, more than three hours earlier than the time set by the most optimistic.

Communication Severed.

Since the flyers passed out of range of the Atlantic coast radio stations communication with the Navy Department practically has been severed. The only message coming through between 4:30 and 8 r>.m. was passed eastward by the station ships to the destroyer Melville at Ponta Delgado and cabled here. The planes then had passed the destroyer Cowell, the fourteenth station ship, located approximately 750 miles from Trepassey, or more than half way across to the Azores.

When the seaplanes passed over station ship No. 13 at 2:3? a.m. they were flying in close formation. While only the NC-4 was mentioned in the Ponta Delgada message received at 4:30, it was the belief of Navy officials that all thrse of the planes passed destroyer No. 14 together.

Traced by Shore Stations.

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By this means the powerful government station at Bar Harbor, Maine, kept the Navy Department "watch party" constantly informed regarding the expedition for more than eight hours.

Although the radio apparatus on board the seaplanes was only designed for a radius of about 250 miles, the Maine station intercepted messages exchanged between the planes when they were more than 1.200 miles distant. This was declared by expert radio officers at the department to be one of the most surprising features of the epochal undertaking. When the flight was planned it was not expected that the stations on this side would be able to hear Commander Towers' messages after his squadron was 200 miles at sea.
NC-4 Sights Land.

Another message relayed to the department was one from the NC-4. sent at 7:35 a.m., Washington time, saying she had sighted land. It read:

"We have just picked up land again. Think It is Pico." This referred, Navy officials said, to the top of the mountain Which forms the western extremity of the Azores group.

An intercepted message from the NC-4 said she had passed station ship 22 at 8:10 a.m. Washington time, and that the "weather was foggy."

The official dispatch to the Navy Department announcing NC-4'a arrival said:

'The NC-4 arrived at Horta (Island of Fayal, Azores) at 12:20."

The Navy Department later corrected the time of the arrival according' to the official report, to read 9:20 a.m. Washington time, which would make the time of the flight 15 hours and 13 minutes from Trepassey bay.

An Intercepted message from the NC-3 received at Horta at 5:15 a.m.. Washington time, read: "We are off our course somewhere between 17 and 18 (station ships)."

A later dispatch said the NC-1 passed the station ship 19 at 6:14 a.m., Washington time.

Confirm Arrival of NC-4 and Wireless From Two Flyers.

By the Associated Press.
PONTA DELGADA, Azores. May 17. -- The seaplane NC-4 arrived at the port of Horta, in the Azores, at 1:25 p.m., Greenwich time. The NC-4 sighted land at Flores at 11:35 a.m. NC-1 then was close behind her. The NC-3 passed station 17 at 9:15 o'clock.

The first two seaplanes were in wireless touch with the torpedo boat tender Melville shortly before noon.

With NC-4 leading, the three naval transatlantic fliers had completed two-thirds of their course from Trepassey to the Azores at 8:30 o'clock this morning. (The equivalent of 8:30 a.m. Azores time is 4:45 a.m. New York time).

The other planes were going strong in the wake of their leader. The average speed of the NC-4 was computed at more than seventy-five miles an hour.

The news of the oncoming seaplanes brought Interest in the transatlantic flight to a high pitch this morning. Small knots or people gathered on the water front shortly after daybreak to seek news of the flyers and to await their arrival, and as the day progressed the crowd rapidly increased.

The city here was in gala dress for the expected event of the day, and Admiral Jackson invited the high civil officials to view the arrival of the flyers from one of the American warcraft stationed here.

The weather was misty and the visibility poor early this morning, but clearing weather was predicted.

The departure of the seaplanes from Trepassey was first reported here at 11;44 o'clock last night, when the torpedo boat tender Melville received a wireless message reading "planes in flight." This information, which was rapidly circulated about the city, caused much animation in American naval headquarters, which was besieged with inquiries regarding the flight. The flood of questions poured in upon the headquarters continued through the night.

An hour after the announcement of the start a definite statement of the time of the departure was received. Nothing further came in until 3:15 a m., when the NC-3 reported having passed station No. 7, 350 miles from Newfoundland.

Officials Up All Night.

Admiral Jackson, Fleet Commander Wortman, Commander Orwine and scores of other naval officials remained up ail night to receive reports of the seaplanes' progress. The wireless worked excellently throughout the night hours, merchant ships and radio stations heeding the request of the Navy to refrain from interfering with messages regarding the flight.

Cheers at Trepassey Speed Daring U. S. Flyers on Evening Departure

By the Associated Press.
TREPASSEY, N. F., May 16. -- Three giant seaplanes of the American Navy the NC-3, NC-4 and the NC-1 rose late today from the waters of Trepassey bay and headed for the Azores to make by air, in the twentieth century, a Journey a# dangerous as that Columbus made by water 427 years ago.

Commanded by Commander John H. Towers, Lieut. Commander A. C. Read and Lieut. Commander P. N. L. Bellinger, the planes left their moorings at the head of Trepassey harbor and "taxied" toward the narrows. Then, rushing into a westerly wind, they took the air. The NC-3, the "flagship," rose at 7:32; the NC-4, two minutes later, and the NC-1 at 7:41 (New foundland time, which is one hour and thirty minutes ahead of New York time). Within a few minutes they were lost sight of beyond the eastern horizon.

Yankee Sailors Cheer.

As they passed from view natives of Newfoundland, who lined the shores of the landlocked bay, vied with Yankee sailors, stationed here, in sending away with a rousing cheer the American aviators starting on their epochal voyage.

The seaplanes shaped their course toward Corvo, westernmost Island of the Azores, from which they expected to fly to Horta. on the Island of Fayal and thence to Ponta Delgada or San Miguel Island, 1,352 nautical miles from this port. This leg of the cruise. from Rockaway Beach, N. Y., the planes' home station, to Plymouth, England, is the only one which will require night flying.

The planes were expected to maintain an average speed of sixty nautical miles an hour. Temperature was expected to determine the flying altitude.

NC-4 Gets Off Well.

The NC-4, which was left behind at the start by her sister craft because of engine trouble and arrived here from Halifax only yesterday, was in the air today almost as soon as the flagship, rising after a swift twenty five-minute cruis about Manhattan harbor.

The NC-1 made two unsuccessful attempts to leave the water, while Commander Towers' plane soared above it, and the "taxiing" NC-4, but it rose nine minutes after the flagship and followed in the wake Of the others, which headed for the east, aa soon as it took the air.

As the throttle of the four liberty motors with which each plane is equipped were opened wide and the boats aped down the bay on the surface, poising for the flight, they were escorted by launches from the three warships anchored here. The motor boats darted ahead and astern of the planes, but gave them wide bertha so that no accident might befall them.

Nature provided a glorious day for the beginning of the gamble against death. The white spray thrown up by the planes aa they sped along the surface seemed like rays flashing from the emerald surface of the harbor nestling among green hills.

Lisbon Prepares Greeting.

LISBON. Portugal, May 16 -- (by the Associated Press).-- Lisbon is prepared for the arrival of the American transatlantic seaplanes. Two. American warships are In the Tagus river and a meteorological mission daily is studying atmospheric conditions from the observatory. An English meteorologist also is here with stores and instruments for any English flying boats or other planes which may arrive.


Many setbacks and disappointments have been met by the leading aviators of the world in their efforts to make the first transatlantic flight. The failures which have beset the flyers in making their attempts are described in the New York Tribune. To the three seaplanes of the United States Navy only has preliminary success been granted by fickle fortune, and then only after a series of minor setbacks due to defective machinery. The NC-1, first of the Navy's transatlantic seaplanes, is the only aircraft that has gone through every flight without mishap, but she, too, has sustained two serious accidents while on the ground.

The NC-1 Is by far the most romantic of all the ocean flyers. She is attempting to fly across the Atlantic with odd wings. The upper and lower left wing with which she is equipped were originally built on the NC-2. which was early eliminated from the flight. Her two right wings are her own.

Lost Wings; Then Fire Came

It was early In March that the NC-1 lost her own left wings. She was moored in Jamaica bay, when a sudden gale drove her on to the beach and crippled both left wings. When It was decided to drop the NC-2 from the flight both sets of wings from that ship were placed on the NC-1. The right wings of the NC-1 were stored away.

The night before the scheduled start from Rockaway a fire started in the NC-1 hanger. The fire destroyed the right wing of the NC-1 and the lower elevator of the NC-4. The original right wings of the NC-1 were put back on within twelve hours == a week's work being accomplished within that period. The lower elevator of the discarded NC-2 made good the loss on the NC-4. When the start was finally made for Halifax, the NC-4 was compelled to descend because of failure of her oil pumps. This defect put her engines out of commission one after another. The other two ships succeeded in making Halifax, but in the flight from Halifax to Newfoundland, the NC-3 was compelled to descend with propeller trouble, although she was able to complete the trip later in the day. The NC-1 made the trip without mishap.

Engine and Propeller Trouble.

When the NC-4 finally got away from Chatham, Mass., where she had been compelled to wait almost a week by unfavorable weather, she made a wonderful flight to Halifax, averaging ninety-nine miles an hour. The succeeding day she left for Newfoundland. but was compelled to descend again through engine trouble. After this she finished the trip, arriving at Trepassey just as the NC-1 and NC-3 were returning from an ineffectual start across the Atlantic.

The failure of the two latter ships on their initial attempt was due entirely to their inability to raise from the water the extra load that had been put on them.

Dirigible's Bad Luck.

The most serious disappointment occurred when the big naval dirigible airship was blown from her moorings at St. Johns Thursday. This occurred just after she had broken all records for distance covered by non-rigid airships, a total distance of more than 1,300 miles In twenty-five hours and forty minutes.

The earliest transatlantic entry to arrive at Newfoundland was the Sopwith biplane, powered with a Rolls Royce 380-horsepower engine. This machine, piloted by Harry G. Hawker, the Australian aviator, and navigated by Commander Mackenzie Grieve, R. N., has been held up by unfavorable weather ever since her arrival, March 23 last.

Capt. Frederick P. Raynham and Maj. C. w. F. Morgan, two British aviators with a Martinsyde plane, have been held up in Newfoundland by unfavorable weather conditions since April 11.

Fell Into Irish Sea.

The most tragic British entry was that of Maj. J. C. P. Wood and Capt. C. C. Wylie, R. N., which started from Eastchurch, England, on April 18. The machine became lost in a fog and then fell into the Irish sea following engine trouble. Both occupants were rescued.

Two disappointments In succession befell Lieut. J. P. Fontan. the French aviator, who starter from Paris to fly to South America by way of Cape Dakar, Africa, and Pernambuco. Brazil. He made his first start on March 16, but was compelled to land shortly afterward because of a cracked cylinder. On April 8, after flying for 110 miles, he was compelled to land at Bourges through engine trouble.


ST. JOHNS, N. F.. May 17.-- Announcement was made here this morning that the two British aviators Frederick P. Raynham and Harry G. Hawker would In all probability start their transatlantic airplane flight this afternoon.

Washington Star, 17-May-1919