Sunday, January 27, 2019

Opening of the California Midwinter International Exposition -- January 27, 2019

San Francisco Call, 28-January-1894
100 years ago today, on 28-January-1894, the Midwinter Fair opened in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. In 1893 the American economy was suffering through a slump. Mike De Young of the San Francisco Chronicle was inspired by Chicago's Columbian Exposition to bring some of its exhibits to Golden Gate Park for a World's Fair. Today's De Young Museum and Japanese Tea Garden are descendants of fair exhibits.  Mike De Young was Director-General of the fair.  

100 years ago today, on 28-January-1894, the Midwinter Fair opened in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. In 1893 the American economy was suffering through a slump. Mike De Young of the San Francisco Chronicle was inspired by Chicago's Columbian Exposition to bring some of its exhibits to Golden Gate Park for a World's Fair. Today's De Young Museum and Japanese Tea Garden are descendants of fair exhibits.

"Dissentients" is a new word for me.  

James D Phelan, President of the Day, later served as Mayor of San Francisco and Senator from California.  He worked hard to prevent immigration from Asia. 

Michael William Balfe composed the opera The Bohemian Girl.  Laurel and Hardy fans will remember that they starred in a 1936 adaption.  

Opening of the California Midwinter International Exposition

The California Midwinter International Exposition is open.

Moreover, it was opened under such happy auspices that even the most pessimistic of visitors to the grounds yesterday must have felt that nothing but success could follow so glorious a beginning.

To begin with, the day was simply perfect Delightful as much of our mid-winter weather always is, no more delightful day could possibly have been selected for the initiatory ceremonies. In early morning, when the monotonous warnings of the fog-whistles came booming up the bay and San Franciscans awoke to find themselves surrounded by a soft white mist, a cloud of disappointment, much heavier than was the fog, settled down upon the city.

For weeks past every one had been looking forward to this especially Californian holiday and making preparations therefor, and a foggy holiday is not desirable, Still, fog or no fog, nearly every one in the city and its environs had determined to go to the fair or to the parade, or both, and so preparations went merrily onward in spite of gloomy forebodings on the part of the feminine contingent as to the fate of feathers and frizzes, and long before it was time for the procession to move Phoebus Apollo conquered the fog entirely and gave to the fair's opening day the glorious blessing of a flood of California sunshine. There was no wind to play rude tricks with raiment and temper; the recent rains had laid the dust and brightened grass and foliage to their most vivid shade of midwinter green, while the cloudless skies and balmy air reminded the Eastern tourists of New England's "fair day in June."

The early trains from adjacent towns were loaded down with passengers, and most of them went straight from the ferries to the park, where, with those of the city residents who realized how to see the procession at its best, they took possession of every seat and every knoll along the sides of the north drive and waited patiently.

lf "all roads led to Rome" in times past, certainly all roads seemed to lead to the park yesterday, for from east and west and north and south people came in holiday garb and with holiday faces which were all turned toward that one especial point.

Downtown the streets were almost deserted, for almost every one who owned or could hire a carriage, or who could muster up carfare, or, failing that, was well and strong enough to walk, joined in the general exodus parkward. Van Ness and Golden Gate avenues were thickly lined with sightseers, but thousands of people went ahead of the parade, and every available space in the panhandle and along the line of march from there to the exposition gates was simply packed with spectators.

As for the parade, it was a success from beginning to end. The soldiers in their brilliant uniforms, the waving banners, the proudly stepping horses, the rattling gun-carriages with their grim burdens, the pretty girls with their fluttering flags, the gray old veterans, the different societies and all the other objects of interest in the long line combined to form a picture, which, together with the inspiring music of the many bands, roused the enthusiasm of the spectators to its highest point.

The National Guard won especial praise from the beholders for their soldierly bearing and the excellent manner in which they performed various evolutions; they and the Naval Reserve, whose uniforms, though dark in color, are particularly picturesque and noticeable, were cheered heartily at different points in their onward march.

As the procession entered the exposition gates and wound along between the palatial buildings on its way to the grand stand, where it disbanded, the scene from Strawberry Hill was most magnificent. Through the black crowd of people it slowly made its way, looking like nothing so much as an enormous and brilliantly colored python instinct (??? - JT) with life.

San Francisco Call, 28-January-1894
The yellow plumes of the cavalry, the scarlet, bright blue and yellow facings of the different uniforms, the white horses, the girls' flag brigade in their gowns of scarlet, white and azure, the various regimental flags, tbe flashing swords of the officers viewed from a distance formed a scheme of color as beautiful as it was brilliant and effective.

At the gates the crush previous to the beginning of the dedicatory exercises was simply terrific, but, as is usual with California crowds, good nature prevailed, and as the strong helped the weak no really serious trouble occurred. Once inside the grounds there was room enough for all to move about comfortably, though the crowd in front of the grand stand was somewhat unpleasantly dense.

The ceremony of touching the electric button seemed to be especially interesting to the majority of the immense audience, and when it was performed and for the time being pandemonium seemed to have broken loose. In consequence, everybody seemed to be delighted thereby.

The various concessions did a land-office business all the afternoon, and restaurants and cafes were overwhelmed with customers, many of the visitors to the grounds planning to stay until after the pyrotechnic display of the evening.

The '49 camp was taken by storm, as were the various villages, and judging from the faces of the concessionaires the opening day of the fair was, in their estimation, an unlimited success.

Extra cars having been put on all the lines there was little difficulty about handling the crowd on its homeward way, nor in carrying up the many who returned for the evening.

The fireworks attracted a large crowd to the vicinity of the grand stand, and were magnificent enough to well deserve the hearty applause with which they were received.

It was a tired crowd which made its way home under the starlight, but it was a well satisfied crowd, too, for every one in it felt that the day had been what they hope and believe the fair will be a perfect success.

Through turnstiles yesterday 72,248.

At a late hour the officials at the Administration building were unable to segregate the paid from the unpaid admissions.

STREET DECORATIONS.

There was plenty of bunting in evidence along the principal streets of the city. Those houses that possessed flagpoles rigged them in style and those that did not hung banners and streamers in profusion.

The great wholesale and fancy stores were appropriately hung with the red, white and blue, most of me banners bearing a white strip across the center with the word "Welcome" inscribed thereon. Two well-known stores on Kearny street vied with one another for the supremacy in gala decorations, and their close proximity to one another having the effect of causing the managers of each to throw prudence and economy to the winds, very pretty effects resulted.

A somewhat amusing effect was produced by one well-known Market-street store, which displayed among its loyal decorations and invitations of welcome three or four portraits of the late lamented George Washington. The eye of the beholder was at once caught by the benign features of the father of our country, and it was not noticeable to many that there was anything singular in the display. But one passer-by took in the whole situation. He gazed awhile at the pictures and surroundings and appeared at first the least bit puzzled. All at once his face lit up, and as he moved slowly down the street he was heard to say that he supposed "times were bad. and 'twas hard to get original ideas nowadays, so they'd just hauled out their annual stock of George Washington's birthday decorations, thinking they'd do just as well now as a month hence."

Lieutenant-Governor O'Meara of Missouri presented a pleasing compliment to the latest enterprise of California. He is at present in the city, and is occupying rooms at the Palace Hotel, on the first floor. Determined to show his appreciation of the eventful occasion, he caused to be hung from his windows a large banner surrounded by flags innumerable, and the coats of arms of the States of Missouri and California painted on either side. In the center of the banner appeared the words: "Missouri sends greeting to California and wishes her success in her Midwinter Fair."

Several buildings in the business portion of the city were similarly decorated, notably those on California street. The Bank of California came to the front with two lines running from the top of its flagpole to either side of the building, from which hung flags of all nations, varicolored and presenting a pleasing spectacle in the glorious sunshine.

Besides these, every streetcar In the city was bedecked with the stars and stripes. Every horse-cart, donkey-cart or any other kind of cart was similarly garnished, and even newsboys and street urchins carried the national emblem around. One little fellow, a cripple on crutches, was sorely perplexed as to how to display his pride in the occasion, having no spare hand. Finally he bound one crutch firmly to his leg and triumphantly waved his banner with the disengaged hand.

GOING TO THE OPENING.

From an early hour the streets were alive with people, mostly dressed in their Sunday best. For was not this the most eventful day in ages? The fog, which hung over the city at break of day, finally broke, making room for the sweet sunshine. The still wet pavements resounded with the pattering of many feet, big and smail, in the rush to the waiting cars.

All tbe car companies rose to the occasion, and every available means of transport was pressed into service. It puzzled not a few at first to see a Howard-street car, gayly decked out with bunting, sliding leisurely along Market street, until the words "McAllister street," which bad been hastily laid on for the day, showed the people that extra force was in use. Just before 10 o'clock was the busiest time of the day, when car after car went out laden with holiday-seekers, while the south of Market-street contingent must have driven a sorry trade. True, all cars did not do so well as others, even on Market street, as the McAllister and Geary street cars, together with the Powell-street system, having direct means of transport to the fairgrounds, naturally took precedence in public favor.

The rush continued until about noon, when matters took an easier turn. Then it was that an easy-going don't-wish-to-be flurried sort of person could get some chance of finding a seat, thus getting the full value of his nickel. Matters remained thus quiet, quieter even than on any ordinary Sunday, until quite late in the afternoon, when the cars came rolling down into the city, one after another, and most laden with people who preferred a quiet dinner at home to the first day scramble at the fair before returning to witness the evening's fun.

Various ways besides that of the cable cars were adopted by the multitude in their anxiety to be there. Market street was lined with every description of vehicle, gliding along in all-conscious majesty. Trolleys, wagons, buggies, horse carts,. mule-carts, donkey-carts, char-a-bancs and hacks all joined in the throng, all displaying, either by bunting or other outward snow of loyalty, that business was laid aside for a day.

One energetic huckster, who was dragging his sorry team along with a rattle-trap old vegetable cart, behind them, was so imbued with ideas of the solemnity of the occasion and the necessity of preserving a dignified demeanor that he walked his turnout into abrupt collision with an inoffensive horse and buggy hitched up to the sidewalk. The buggy horse snorted and made a break for a store window, but be was stopped. Meanwhile the teamster, wondering at the sudden obstruction to his progress, and never dreaming of looking round to ascertain the cause, simply anathematized his horses and urged them on. In a moment the buggy and horse were upset and one of the team horses bit the dust. No damage was done and the teamster pursued his course to the Mecca of his dreams.

There were very few accidents. The Ellis-street cable went wrong in the early morning, and it was funny to see the cars standing motionless at intervals along the line, most preserving their gay passengers, who, in the sublime belief that "all would be right directly," sat there an hour or so, afraid to alight lest at the next moment the well-known burr of the cable would be set going again. Finally the machinery was fixed and all went well.

At the north end of the park, on the California-street steam-car line, an engine spread the rails while switching. The cars were thus delayed for an hour or so.

THE STREET PAGEANT.

Fully 100,000 people lined Van Ness and Golden Gate avenues yesterday morning and viewed the Midwinter Fair procession. The formation was upon Van Ness avenue resting upon Golden Gate avenue, and the wisdom of placing the formation and handling of great masses of men such as marched yesterday in the bauds of military chiefs was shown by the promptness and precision with which every detail of the formation and march was carried out. Had the civilians who were to take part in the parade been on time Generals Dickinson and Muller would have given the command "Forward, march," promptly at 10 o'clock, for the military were all in readiness at that hour. As it was the line moved at 10:50 o'clock, a remarkably short delay comparatively speaking, and once in motion went right along without hitch or jumble of any kind.

Whatever else Californians had to be proud of yesterday their chief pride and glory must have centered in the National Guard and Naval Battalion of California. A finer body of men, a more soldierly mililia never unsheathed a sword or shouldered a gun in any State of the Union. Not only were the officers well mounted and the men well uniformed, but they one and all moved like veterans. The discipline was perfect and the maneuvers, which were constant as the procession moved along, were executed with the snap and precision that showed how well and how thoroughly the men bad been drilled. Handsome and soldierly as were Uncle Sam's regular troops, who do nothing except drill, the National Guard and Naval Reserve outshone them. The artillery and cavalry, as well as the Infantry, called forth comments of praise all along the line.

"There is nothing nf the bandbox soldier about those fellows," said a New Yorker in the bearing of a Call reporter, and he was right. The truth is that without the National Guard and Naval Reserve yesterday the procession would have been a failure, but with them it was not only a success but one of those successes that are remembered.

Not since Admission day, 1890, has there been such a crowd of people on the streets, and not since the memorable parade on that day have they been given such a show of military of all nationalities. Unfortunately the original programme could not be entirely carried out. The civic societies, while well represented, were not In such numbers as to be especially noticeable, and the Midway Plaisance Division, the seventh as originally planned, was entirely abandoned.

Following the first troop of cavalry, National Guard of California, who came down the avenue to clear the way at a swinging trot, their sabers flashing and yellow plumes nodding in the bright sunshine, came the Vienna Prater Band, and then Generals John H. Dickinson and M. W. Muller, with their respective staffs, all splendidly mounted, leading the procession. Behind them was the first division, consisting of regular troops as follows:
Colonel W. R. Shafter and staff.
First United States Infantry Band.
First United States Infantry.
Two Light Batteries, U. S. A. . Four Troop Cavalary, U. S. A.

And right here it must be said that the care exercised by the officers, cavalry and artillery of both the militia and regular army in seeing that their horses overran no one was worthy of the true soldier, for it must be remembered that the line of procession was practically without police protection except a scattered officer here and there.

The regulars were cheered along the line, but the people did not fully warm up until the second division came trooping into the avenue, and then as the California boys with firm, swinging step came along, company after company moving, as one man, the cheers and plaudits were frequent and hearty. Even the small boy forgot to jeer, for there was no fault to be found. The division comprised:
Colonel William Macdonald and staff, commanding Second Brigade, N. G. C.
Signal Corps. Second Brigade, N. G. C
Second Regiment Artillery Band.
Second Regiment Artillery.
Fifth Regiment Infantry Band.
Fifth Regiment Ifantry.
First Regiment Infantry Band.
First Regiment Infantry.
Third Regiment Infantry.
Light Battery A.
Third Regiment Infantry Band.
Naval Reserve of California.
Lieutenant F. A. Stable commanding, with staff.

The Naval Battalion, with its natty uniforms, came in for no little favorable comment, and old soldiers especially were loud in their praises of its drill and quickness in executing commands.

Led by the Iowa State Band the civilians' division, third in line, came. Director-General de Young rode alone, although James D. Phelan, president of the day; Bishop Nichols, chaplain of the day, and W. H. L. Barnes, orator of the day, were all programmed to ride with him. Following in carriages were: The Executive Committee of the Midwinter Fair -- B. Mitchell. A. Andrews. Irwin C. Stump, P. N. Lilienthal, Fulton C. Berry, J. 11. Neff, Eugene J. Gregory; Hon. H. H. Markham, Governor of California, and staff; Major-General W. H. Dimond and staff, Brigadier-General Thomas H. Roger and staff, foreign Consuls and foreign commissioners.

Again did the National Guard distinguish itself in the splendid escort furnished its commander-in-chief, Governor Markham. The long line of blue uniforms of American troops now gave place to the picturesque clothing and equipment of the military organizations of the Italian, French, Swiss. German and other citizens of foreign birth, but "Californians" just the same. The change was Pleasing and interesting. The fourth and fifth divisions comprised the following organizations, led respectively by:
Theodore Bacigalupi and B.Etchart, Marshals.
Aids— A. de la Torre Jr., G. Bacigalupi,
P. Bolin. A. Dumont.
Garibaldi Guard, Captain A. Olmo.
Bersaglieri Guard, Captain F. Deliongaro.
Alpine Guard, Captaiu S. Uiovanninni.
Cavalleggieri di Lucca, Captain A. Martlnelll.
Real! Carablnlerl, Captain M. Sabattni.
Swiss Sharpshooters, Captain C. Caniniuzzi
California State Military Band.
French Zouaves, Captain M. Rigaud.
Legion Francaise, Captain A. Froment.
Lafayette Guard, Captain J. Milly.
Juarez Guard, Captain A. de la Torre.
Lyre Francaise.
Swedish Organizations.
Luxemburg Society.

Up to this time the show bad been all military in its character and the crowd began to tire a little, hence the appearance of the sixth division, which contained the "forty-niners," bicyclists, etc., was heartily welcomed. In the division several societies marched that should have been in the seventh division, which for some reason was abandoned. The division was led by the California Midwinter band, which was repeatedly cheered and deserved the plaudits, for it was by far the best band in the line, so far, as marching music was concerned. The last division was made up of the following:
Forty-nine Mining Camp. Old stage coach with miners and pack-mules. Mexican riders. Large wagon with Mexican fandango dancers, etc.
The Wheelmen, 250 strong. Captain Theodore A. Dodge commanding.
Boys' Brigade.
Young Men's Institute.
Facific Coast Commercial Travelers' Association,
And wagons innumerable from the business houses in the city. It required fifty-five minutes for the procession to pass a given point, and considering the fact that the marching was steady and at military speed, the length of the line must have been something over a mile and a half.

THE CEREMONIES.

"I shall now ask the one selected for this duty to give impulse and life to the exposition," were the concluding words of Director-General de Young, as be stood in the speakers' stand at the recreation grounds yesterday afternoon.

Then Mrs. de Young pressed an electric button on the speaker's stand. Simultaneously cheers rose from thousands of throats and swelled above the volume of melody produced by the grand chorus of 300 voices, accompanied by the five bands playing in concert the "Star-spangled Banner." The whistles from the Machinery Hall added a shrill accompaniment, and with the boom from the guns of the light artillery on the grounds the California Midwinter International Exposition was formally opened with civil pomp, military glory and the invocation of a high dignitary of the church for the divine blessing upon the enterprise so happily inaugurated.

Suggestive of all the activity of a battlefield was the continuation of this scene. Troops of cavalry galloped over the wide recreation ground; companies of infantry stood with presented arms in front of the 8000 occupants of the grand stand, and the batteries of light artillery scattered over the surrounding hillocks and puffs of white smoke following the salute arose from clumps of trees and mingled in martial din with the other enlivening sounds of the moment. Few of the spectators could withstand the enthusiasm of the scene, and even the ladies waved white emblems of their appreciation.

Auspicious in its designations of Midwinter Fair and Sunset City the semi-tropical loveliness of the day was all that could be desired. The warm, soft rays of the sun shone on a thoroughly representative gathering of San Francisco's citizens, whose comfort was not marred by a suspicion of wind or a suggestion of dampness. With all the attributes of summer the January day had in its temperature all that could be desired.

Perhaps the balmy weather helped to swell the crowd of visitors, each one of whom was a participant in the dedicatory exercises. From early morning they crowded every car running to Golden Gate Park. From each of the entrances to the fair grounds they flocked into the grounds. The turnstile never ceased to revolve even for a moment until the dusk of the early evening set in, and then those who had already entered were re-enforced by the evening contingent, who had come out specially to see the fireworks.

Thousands spent the entire day and evening at Sunset City. They breakfasted at home, but they lived at the exposition grounds. Many brought lunches along and divided into small parties and satisfied their hunger in picnic style. All of the restaurants were liberally patronized, and would-be patrons were obliged to struggle for chairs and tables. The regulation programme for the all-day visitor provided for the morning in the official buildings, the noon hours: at the dedicatory exercises, and the afternoon among the concessions, and the evening tracing fireworks through the skies.

Crowds packed the pavements and roads, moving slowly and as a massive unit. They poured in at one entrance to the big buildings about the grand central court and made their exit at another door. There was no retracing one's steps. That was impossible. People simply moved onward shoulder to shoulder with a common impulse, from which there were no individual dissentients.

The Fine Arts building was packed all day. Every picture had its critics, and as one inspecting visitor resumed his march his place before the canvas was taken by another. The hanging of pictures was temporarily suspended and those on the walls were generally admired. Universal admiration was expressed for Harriet Hosmer's beautiful statue of Isabella pawning her crown jewels and art lovers lingered as long before it as their neighbors at their heels would permit.

In the Manufactures and Liberal Arts and the Mechanical Arts and the Agriculural and Horticultural buildings those exhibits already installed received generally very favorable comment, In the spaces as yet unfilled In every case the details of the displays were outlined sufficiently to enable a visitor to gauge their completed appearance. Every marveled at the comprehensiveness of the exposition. The great project has outgrown the estimate even of those who had carefully watched its growth. They looked for a hill and found it a mountain.

All of the county buildings kept open house and each had a constant stream of callers. The most popular, because the largest and most complete, were the headquarters devoted to Northern and Central California and to Southern California. The citrus triumphs contained by each were a source of marvel and elicited unanimous praise. Every concession in the grounds was in for business and silver was the open sesame to each. Not one but derived a rich harvest and great was the joy along the Midway.

Not one-third of the people on the grounds listened to the dedicatory exercises. All of the 7600 chairs were occupied, and fully as many more remained standing on the recreation ground during the ceremonies. The military who scattered over this territory numbered at least 2000 more, so that 18,000 persons were within sight and sound of the platform. Many of them remained in the warm sunlight for hours awaiting the commencement of the ceremonies. No one evinced any impatience, nor was there a single unpleasant incident, nor anything in the shape of a disturbance during the period prior to and during the exercises.

Precisely at noon, the platoon of police which preceded the military constituting the first division of the parade entered at the north gate, and marched around the central court, past the Manufactures building and around by the Mechanical Arts. Of course, to constitute it the court of honor the procession must needs pass the Administration building, so the grand marshal wheeled by the allegorical fountain, and along the south road of the general offices to the Midway, and thence along the latter thoroughfare it wended its way to the south drive and down to the lower level of the recreation grounds.

Great enthusiasm was evoked by the appearance of the Girls' Flag Brigade of Oakland. The young ladies comprising this organization were divided into sections, each clad in red, white, blue, or star-spangled dresses. Their marching order was in the pattern of a flag and as they walked the living banner which they constituted seemed to unfurl and flutter in the breeze. Later they gave an exhibition drill in front of the Administration buildmg to an admiring crowd.

During the slight delay between the arrival of the second division and the third, composed of the officers of the day and chief officials of the fair, F. H. Truesdell, chief of the department of publicity and promotion, endeavored to promote the comfort and convenience of late arriving guests. He arranged spacious accommodations for the press representatives and proved himself as efficient in various parts of the grounds during the subsequent hours of tbe day as in the routine work of his own department.

A sea of faces looked down to the stand of honor, as Director-General de Young, James D. Phelan, president of the day, and Right Rev. Bishop W.F. Nichols, chairman of the day, stepped from the first carriage, followed by the members of the executive committee. Governor Markham and his staff, and the foreign commissioners, and applause greeted their appearance, and the gentlemen remained seated, while the remaining divisions of the huge procession were deftly installed by Theodore Bacigalupi.

Many of the foreign representatives wore decorations, and there was no lack of barons, counts, viscounts and chevaliers. A number wore the full-dress uniforms of the regimental or engineer corps of some European nation, and a small but enthusiastic band of foreign exhibitors stood under the rays of the sun in evening dress. San Francisco's handsomest women, dressed as for an opera matinee, lined the stalls, and the flags of all nations were unfurled, the whole constituting a perfect kaleidoscope of color.

Mr. Phelan's Address.

San Francisco Call, 28-January-1894
An international selection. by the Midwinter Exposition' band, under the direction of B. J. Stewart and C. Cassasa, formed the first number of the exercises. They began at 1 o'clock and when they concluded James D. Phelan, who was very well received, advanced to the railing and delivered his opening address in well-modulated tones. His voice carried surprisingly, his utterances being distinctly audible in the outskirts of the crowd. His phrasing was very happy, particularly when he referred to Sunset City, predicting that "an empire rises as the sun descends." His speech was as follows:

Ladies and gentlemen: The California Midwinter International Exposition is an accomplished fact, and to-day In all its beauty and in the comprehensive classification of its exhibits it is thrown open to the public.

But six short months ago it was projected by the director-general and a few visiting Californians in the World's Fair city, where Chicago enterprise and the glory of the Columbian Exposition had inspired them to act for the highest interests of their state. Four months ago this site was a barren waste, but with energy unsurpassed, and with the labor of love, these exposition buildings have sprung up, as it were, in a night, to house the representatives of the world. Unique among enterprises of its kind, it neither asked, received nor expects any governmental subsidy whatever.

The heart was in the work, and the heart
Addeth grace unto every art.

It is the people's fair, and it was erected by and with the aid of all the people. On the 23d of last August they assembled by tens of thousands to break ground, glad with the prospect of advancing their state, and conscious of its charms and advantages, eager to throw wide open to the world their golden gates of hospitality. In the name of California, we formally open the gates to-day.

Ladies and gentlemen, this event will mark an epoch not only in the development of our State, but, taking an extensive view, you will see that here on the shores of the Pacific Ocean we are recording to-day a fact in the growth and progress of the world. Not alone in the character or its exhibits is our exposition international. It is international in a much broader sense, it is international historically. Look back for a moment with the eye of retrospection and you will see that the march of civilization, starting in the far East, somewhere in Asia, has moved steadily westward, through Asia, across Africa, where Egyptian monuments still save from the absorbing sands of the desert the traces of our race, traversing the Mediterranean into Greece and Italy, France, Germany and England, the arts and sciences have advanced till finally, still pursuing their westward course, they crossed the Atlantic and found a congenial soil on the eastern edge of the American continent.

There civilization lingered while the savages were committing depredations in what are now the streets and boulevards of Chicago, then an unbroken wilderness, and while still the western half of America was unexplored and unknown.

In the year or grace 1893 the world paid homage to the arts and sciences under the shadow of Fort Dearborn and proclaimed the Columbian Exposition the crown and culmination of human progress.

But while world was surprised that the growth of America made possible the holding of such an exposition one thousand miles from the seaboard, yet to the student of history it was no surprise, for well he knew the westward march of civilization. But the end was not yet. The orbit had not been traversed. The cynical Sydney Smith, not fifty years ago, sneering at an American book, said what appears to be now, in the light of this occasion, as something prophetic. He said that prairies, gristmills and steamboats would be the natural objects of Americans for centuries and centuries to come; but, added be, when they reach the Pacific Ocean, then epic poems, plays, pleasures of memory and all the elegant gratifications of an ancient people who have tamed the wild earth and set down to amuse themselves, will be theirs. Centuries have not passed since these words were spoken, but we cele brate to-day this great fact -— a history-making fact in the annals of the world -— that the American people have reached the Pacific Ocean, and that civilization, having sprung up in the remote East and pursued its destined course, has reached the western edge of the American continent in California.

Yet the mere occupation of the country bordering on the Pacific would not have been a realization or this prophecy nor justified this conclusion, but we are Justified by the fact that this California community has given civilization a home, that it has nobly fostered educational institutions, that astronomical knowledge has been signally advanced, that literature and music are the daily gratifications of its people, and that, in a word, all the arts of peace have taken root and now put forth, under these auspices the budding promise of certain immaturity.

The metropolis of the Pacific holds Its International Exposition of the arts, industries and sciences without apology, and California, as a great American State, holds up Its head proudly and says for the American people: Yes, we have reached the Pacific Ocean, Civilization has completed Its orbit. but it will henceforth move upward instead of onward.

The past is yours, representatives of other nations, and we gratefully accept it as our heritage; but the future is our own. Hopeful as to what man will still achieve In this land of civil freedom, this land favored in an exceptional degree by nature, we proclaim to-day in our exposition that California, by historical deduction, seems destined in the hands of providence to round the career of civilization, which, ultimately, in its necessary and undeviating course, must find its preordained apotheosis upon our Pacific shores.

And as that civilization, of which an international exposition is the highest exponent, has for, 6000 years followed the pathway of the sun and has come from the distant East even unto the remotest West, it is singularly appropriate that this enchanting spot, where we now stand, should have been called "The Sunset City."

The Eastern nations sink, their glory ends;
An empire rises where the sun descends.

Great is the future or California! And great are the responsibilities of her people!

The Prayer.

President Phelan then Introduced Rev. William Ford Nichols, Bishop of California. The Bishop wore no vestments, and followed no liturgy. He appeared as a simple citizen. Removing his hat he stood up in his overcoat and offered an extemporary prayer in which he eloquently besought the countenance of the Almighty to shine upon this great enterprise, even as the sun shone from the heavens on the exercises of dedication. The Bishop's prayer was couched in the following terms:

Thou. God, who hast created the heavens and stretched them out; who hast spread forth the earth and hast given bread to the people who are upon it, and spirit to those that walk thereon, glory be to thee on high, and on earth honor, peace, good will toward men.

Thou hast shown us wonderful things, O God, in thy righteousness, thou that art the hope of the nations of the earth, and thou who rulest over the sea. Wonderful things hast thou wrought. In the transformation wrought out by thee, and by thy agents, and which is to-day made manifest in this vast gathering of those of our own dear tongue, and of the representatives of other lands, thou hast wrought yet another wonder. Here, under the flags of all the nations of the world, thy people are made to feel the pulsations or joy and the satisfaction with what has been created. Wonderful things hast thou wrought indeed, wonderful things of restoration, of development of home progress, in this nineteenth century, and these are all thy mercies, and to them thou hast added to-day Ibis smiling sunlight, for which we pray and magnify thy holy name, and we humbly beseech thee for the people of the United States that those who have the responsibility of this demonstration may, in ail things, both perceive and do that which they ought to do, and that they may have grace and power to fulfill their undertaking.

Make it a glad day, O God, to those who are assembled here in the midst of these evidences of progress, and In the midst of all that has been consummated in this exposition; make it glad to those visitors who come to us. because their homes are a part or our own dear country; make it glad to those who come from distant countries, and may they here find the welcome they have looked for; make it glad to those who feel in their hearts that this is a land whose stones are full of iron, and from whose hills they may dig wealth; and, O God. make it glad for the unemployed in our midst, and let them have the assurance that ours is a land where there is no scarcity.

Make it glad, O God, to every one who has to-day come within our golden gates, and may there be spread within its shelter more and more of the white wings of commerce; may many more cross the streams and the mountain ranges that lie between us and the great East; and may we, the people who have been so blest with thy hand, take just pride in showing all this greatness of thy creation, and all that is beautiful and wonderful that has come from thy hands.

And all this, O God, we ask for the sake of our mediator and advocate, Jesus Christ.

Amen.

The exposition chorus, comprising 300 voices, then joined in singing "My Country, 'Tis of Thee," with orchestral accompaniment. The audience somewhat generally joined in the national anthem. Then President Phelan read the following graceful telegram of congratulation from H. H. Higinbotham, who was president of the World's Columbian Exposition:

Chicago and the World's Columbian Exposition sends greetings and congratulations to San Francisco and the Midwinter International Exposition. The vanishing exposition upon the shores of Lake Michigan hails the coming exposition by the waters or the Pacific. We trust that blessings will crown your efforts. We remember with gratitude the prompt and loyal support which California gave the World's Columbian Exposition. Success to the California Midwinter International Exposition.

The Governor's Speech.

"I have great pleasure," said Mr. Phelan, "In introducing the Governor of California, Hon. H. H. Markham, who will confine his remarks to welcoming the foreign commissioners and exhibitors." The Governor was received with loud cheers and spoke as follows:

Mr. President, ladles and gentlemen: The very pleasant task has been assigned me of extending the word of welcome to the thousands assembled here to-day and to the many thousands yet to come to our State during the progress of this fair.

Would that I had at my command fitting words that would convey to the stranger in our midst the depth and warmth of feeling of the people or our State toward them, and our appreciation or their presence here in connection with this exposition.

Though I may not adequately express myself upon this point, I may. with just pride, be permitted to say that the words California and hospitality are throughout the world synonymous. No State, no people, are so prodigal in their hospitality as ours; and knowing them as I do and to what I bid you welcome, in perfect confidence I extend to all, and especially to those from foreign lands, a cordial welcome, a hearty greeting, and the freedom of our entire State.

My welcome Is not limited to the confines of this wonderful display, nor to this beautiful park, nor to this world-renowned city of San Francisco. No, my welcome extends to the boundary lines of our matchless California, and to the homes and hearts of her people.

Yes, the red-shirted miner in his cabin; the hardy lumberman in his logging camp; the mechanic in his shop; the farmer in his field; the vineyardist among his vines; the horticulturist In his orchard or beneath the beautiful branches of the golden orange; the capitalist in his luxurious home by city or by sea, as well as the laborer in his cottage, will be found vying with each other to make your stay among us pleasant and instructive, and your departure a regret to them as well as to you.

Here you will find specimen products from almost every county in the State, which I trust will stimulate your curiosity and spirit of investigation and cause you to visit the different localities whence they came that you may carry away with you a correct conception of California as she appears to us who have become fully impregnated with her enchanting power over the human mind. This will enable you to understand that the chief charm of California does not lie in this wonderfully entertaining and instructive exhibit, but rather in those gifts of nature which are fixed and immovable, the everlasting heritage of the generations that shall succeed us.

Our State, with its great length, its continuous sea front, its vast valleys and extensive mountain regions, is, indeed, a miniature United States. Every natural feature of this great Union is manifested within the boundary lines of this wonderful State. Every county in this State is a counterpart of some particular State in the Union, and in some of them will be found the grandest scenery of the world. And, Mr. President, the loyalty of the people of each county to their county and their loyalty to the interest of the whole State Is one of the surest signs of our success and our advancement.

As proud as I am of her natural beauty, her genial climate and her marvelous resources, I am still prouder of her people.

California was the first State in the Union to make an appropriation for the great World's Fair, and her generosity was exceeded by only one State -— that of Illinois; and her promptness and enterprise were used as a potent argument by every promoter of that fair to induce other States and foreign countries to come forward and help the work along. Yes, Mr. President, California's action in that respect was of incalculable benefit to the promoters of that great undertaking, and for it her people have justly received the applause of the whole country.

California was the only State that had for herself a distinct exhibit, which constituted one of the chief attractions of the renowned White City, and this, too, while competing with the world in the general display in other buildings. Forty thousand people a day visited the California building and marveled at the enterprise of our people. It was a grand success and accomplished all that its fondest advocates could possibly have anticipated. Yet many Californians who visited the Columbian Exposition were forcibly impressed with the fact that it was utterly impossible to transplant California, to Chicago; and while our building; and its contents and our various exhibits in the many departments excited admiration and congratulation, Californians knew that the real California was not there.

It was then and there determined that California should have an international exposition, and she was the only State that had the men, the money and the enterprise to attempt such a gigantic undertaking, and that, too, amidst this great business depression and without financial aid from the General Government or assistance from the State, depending entirely upon private subscriptions to accomplish this work.

But the true Californian knows not fear or failure. He is the ideal American. He is not only proud or his own State, but be is emphatically proud of this great American republic. He rejoices that he breathes the pure air of American freedom, and he is full of American enterprise and American intelligence. I am therefore sure that I do but give expression to sentiment in every mind when I say that as we behold this splendid exposition, the consummation of the labors and exertions of California's citizens, we have just reason to feel proud of the nerve, the energy and the persistence which our people generally and the managers of this Midwinter Fair in particular have displayed in the production and completion of this magnificent enterprise.

It has been fraught with difficulties and beset with obstacles, and the perseverance and determination with which these, one after another, have been met and overcome, are scarcely less remarkable than the success of the undertaking and the boldness of the design. And, Mr. Director-General, the people of our State are giving you your full meed of credit for conceiving and laying before your associates the schemes for the accomplishment of this vast undertaking; and since your organization was perfected you have not been director-general in name only, but you have in fact been the director-general that has led your army of co-workers to this great and signal victory.

The site which has been chosen for this fair is one that may well inspire every Californian, whether present or absent, with feelings of honest pride. So much of sentiment and patriotism surrounds it, and it is so closely associated with the early struggles and triumphs of our people that as we to-day look out upon the enchanting prospect of Sunset City our hearts should be filled with love for California, her people and her institutions.

Gazing upon this vast expanse, dotted everywhere with such attractive entertainments and instructive exhibits, let me ask you, Where but in California is such a thing possible?

Here in the midst of this beautiful park within sight of the Pacific's broad expanse, we behold to-day the consummation of California's indomitable purpose and efforts. Here on every side we are surrounded by the splendid structures of Sunset City -— models or architectural skill and elegance, and creditable alike in execution and design. Here we may contemplate the triumphs of the mechanic arts, and here every occupation and industry of our people is worthily represented.

Within these spacious buildings are collected the invaluable contributions of every science and art which ministers to the comfort, the happiness and the improvement of mankind. Here on every hand we see evidences of the progress that our race has made during the present century, whose closing decade is illuminated with the light of so many imperishable achievements, and already gives promise of others in the years to come. And when we reflect that this is the heritage which our generation has to bestow upon its successors we may justly congratulate ourselves upon the results obtained.

Assuredly, we have cause to be grateful that the moral, intellectual and physical capacities which the past, through us, shall transmit to the future, have not been imperiled or abused. And the consciousness that these capacities have been strengthened and improved by enlightened culture and judicious use should be to us at ail times a source of genuine satisfaction and joy.

The address by Governor Markham was followed by music from the Iowa State band, and James D. Phelan then arose again and spoke as follows:

"Ladies and Gentlemen: Every man, woman and child within the reach of my voice will agree with me when I say that the California Midwinter International Exposition owes its life to the matchless energy of Mr. de Young. [Applause.] While he was not alone, while he had earnest coadjutors, and while they labored with him to bring about this happy result, yet he was the principal factor in the creation, and I say that no fair-minded person in the State of California will, for a moment, hesitate in giving honor to whom honor is due. I have pleasure in introducing to you Hon. M. H. de Young."

The Director-General.

San Francisco Call, 28-January-1894
Cheers and loud applause greeted the director-general as he rose, speaking as follows:

Five months ago -— months ago, almost to a day, we assembled within these grounds and turned the first shovelful of earth, and by that act made the first material movement toward building up, developing and electing the California Midwinter International Exposition. Just five months ago. What a short span. In this age of marvels and wonderful results this certainly stands out as one of them. Many of you who are here to-day were present when that event took place, and many of you shook your heads and said it would be a physical impossibility. Aye, even went further, and wagered against yourselves and your own capabilities. But when we were put to the test we demonstrated what a wonderful latent power we possessed and the vast amount or our resources. On that occasion I asked you the question, "Will It pay?" On this occasion, I say to you and ask you now the same question in the light of the past, "Has it paid up to this time?" Yes; It has paid. At that time throughout this great republic from the extreme eastern border out to the shores of your own Pacific. stagnation and business depression were stalking through the land. There was a threatened run on our banks and want of confidence was apparent everywhere. Look to-day at the result. There Is a complete restoration of confidence, business is progressing as of yore, our streets are crowded and the general community are in a better frame of mind. Thousands of men have been given employment within these grounds to assist in the erection of these magnificent buildings and or the building up of this great exposition. Thousands of men have been employed in the improvements adjacent to the park. Hundreds have been employed in the extension of your city railroads.

Your factories and rolling-mills have been kept busy in preparing the iron work for the erection of the fair buildings, the electrical tower and for the railroad extensions, your sawmills in preparing ready tor use the enormous quantity or lumber used in the erection of the fair buildings and the buildings adjacent to the park.

That these highly satisfactory results are directly traceable to the good feeling produced by the Midwinter Exposition project is, I think, indisputable. Had the community sat down and repined over threatened trouble it would surely have come, but instead it buckled on the armor of confidence and general depression had to stand aside.

Had no more than this been accomplished through the instrumentality of the Midwinter Fair, those who nave worked so hard to bring it up to its present state of completion would have been well repaid, and sensible men would pronounce the money already expended well spent, for where dollars have been contributed to make a success of the exposition hundreds might have been swept away in the financial and commercial wreck which every one felt was threatening us.

But more than all, the world has turned her eyes toward us, and our growing State has been the subject of discussion at millions of firesides. Has it paid? If we go no further than we have to-day it has been a paying investment. Possessing as we do one of the most wonderful States in the Union, a state with unlimited resources, a State with 38,000,000 acres of arable land, of which but one-tenth is cultivated, and which one-tenth has placed us as the leading horticultural State in the Union, and which will with increased development produce the greatest empire Stale or country on the face of the globe, with 30,000,000 acres undeveloped, what we want is capital and population -— population to develop our unimproved land and capital to assist it. What will bring it? Not one movement or one effort, but many. There can be but one result to this exposition, and that is an increase of our capital; for people and capitalists only have to learn where to invest to take advantage of the opportunity. By this exposition we will have the opportunity to show to thousands of people who have never been within our borders before, by ocular demonstration, the resources and capabilities of our State.

There is still another notable triumph to be recorded for the Midwinter Fair. I think all my hearers will agree with me that the beautiful buildings erected to house the exhibits of the Midwinter Fair and the charmingly decorated grounds that surround them will do much to lift San Francisco out of the rut of utilitarianism into which she had fallen. I think I may safely predict that hereafter no one will dare to inflict upon the public of this city barn-like structures, whose every line carries an intimation that the projectors fancy that anything is good enough to serve its purpose which will be accepted by the people who use if. I think in future there will be a demand for the beautiful and that an imperative demand will arise that esthetic considerations shall have fully as much weight in determining the character of our public buildings as mere utility. If the example is set in public structures it will soon find abundant imitators in private life with the result of lifting up and refining the taste of the whole community. If this could be achieved the fair would not have been held In vain and San Francisco would forever have cause to congratulate herself upon the fact that at a comparatively youthful period of her existence the proper impulse was given which resulted in making her one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

It is my duty to assist and to officially participate in the dedication and formal opening of this great exposition. It is a day which will be marked In the history of this State, and, I hope, add the most positive and material benefit to us.

What we have accomplished is before you. In the short period mentioned there has been created on this ground for the use of this exposition 100 buildings. These Include our exposition buildings, a great festival hall, a grand stand that will seat over 7000 people, a great electric fountain with nineteen outlets, a beautiful allegorical statuary fountain, and the first great electrical tower, rising 260 feet in the air, whose four sides will be brilliant with electric lights giving brilliant changing effects. These, with our palm gardens, pretty little Japanese tea gardens, the Heidelberg Castle and other greater and smaller attractions, require an electric plant which we have installed of 15,000 incandescent lamps and over 100 arc lights.

All the promises we made to you on that eventful day five months ago I am proud to say have been carried out. We have before us six months. During that period the management of this exposition hopes to give you six months of amusement, six months of education, six months to broaden and elevate yourselves, six months of fetes, amusement and relaxation, while you, one and all of you, I hope will join in extending the hospitality for which we have a reputation to all the strangers that come within our gates.

Mrs. de Young had been escorted from her private box to the speakers' stand by P. N. Lilienthal. When the director-general said, "We are here to-day to declare this exposition open, and I call upon the one who has been selected by the executive committee for this duty to press the electric button which is to impart life and impetus to the exposition," Mrs. de Young arose from her chair and placed her hand upon the ivory button. It was but a formal act, but its immediate effect was recognizable in an instant to everybody within miles of the spot.

The united bands, seated upon the grand stand, struck up "The Star spangled Banner," the artillery, in full view of all the spectators, fired shot after shot in accentuation of the music, every steam whistle in the exposition buildings and grounds joined in the chorus, and the voices of the multitude blended with the rest of the noise. The music of the bands did not seem to be marred by the other portions of the demonstration, but it all worked together into one harmonious whole in the line of glorification.

President Phelan then rose and said, "Ladies and gentlemen, the ceremonies are now finished."

The one thing missing from the programme as had been arranged for the occasion was the dedicatory oration which was to have been delivered by General W. H. L. Barnes, orator of the day. At the time when the address should have been given General Barnes was confined to his bed in his home, 821 Sutter street, suffering from a severe cold which as yet his physician cannot say but may be bordering on pneumonia. President of the Day Phelan in announcing that the oration of the day would not be delivered, expressed regret for the illness of the general that had overtaken him at such an inopportune time.

General Barnes contracted his cold on Thursday evening last at the Grand Opera house, where he delivered two speeches on the Hawaiian question; the second being for Irving M. Scott, who was ill at the time. After he had spoken he retired to a seat on the stage, not noticing that he was | sitting in a draught (draft - JT). As he was perspiring at the time he sat down he contracted a cold which it is feared may cause him to remain indoors for some time.

Last night he was so ill that his physician was sent for, and after visiting him expressed the belief that it would be several days yet before be would be able to be around.

THE MUSIC.

There were three simultaneous concerts in Sunset City yesterday afternoon, the recital given by the Midwinter Exposition band, in the bandstand, near the Administration building ; the Iowa band in the Manufactures building and the concert given in the Kaiser Franz Joseph Hall of the Vienna Prater. Other musicales took place in various places, but they were of minor interest.

The Local Band.

The Midwinter Fair band received plenty of applause from the large crowd that throughout the entire concert was congregated around their band stand. It was evident before the conclusion of the first number that the California organization, hampered as it is by the restrictions which have limited its numbers, is composed of a set of musicians of whom the State may be proud. There was a precision, a verve, and an absolute truth of intonation in everything which the band played that made it a pleasure to listen to its music.

The Midwinter band is at present composed of only thirty-four men. It was impossible, therefore, yesterday for it to obtain the contrasts necessary for a perfectly satisfactory interpretation of the selections which it played. The brass instruments which form the skeleton of the band, so to speak, were there, but twice as much reed would be needed to counterbalance this brass for the shading to be as excellent as the other artistic qualities of the band. In spite of being thus hampered, however, the playing of the California musicians was a credit both to their own ability and to that of the conductor, H. J. Stewart, and the concert-master, Charles Cassassa.

The opening number, "Midwinter Exposition March," is a composition written b the conductor, H. J. Stewart, in honor of the fair. It is a work which will doubtless become very popular, for it is bright and melodious, somewhat operatic in character and full of rhythm and swing.

The grand overture to "Tannhauser" naturally made more demands upon the artistic, abilities of the band. In spite of its lack of numbers, hampering it as to color, which in Wagner's music is such an essential point, it triumphed over this drawback and played the overture crisply and dramatically.

Sarakoski's "Hungarian Dance" and "Spanish dance" were interpreted with excellent swing and verve and were warmly applauded.

W. P. Chambers, who played a solo for cornet of his own composition, proved himself to be an artist of unquestionable ability. He was enthusiastically encored and responded by rendering "Promise Me," from "Robin Hood" Even then the audience clamored for more and refused to be satisfied until Mr. Chambers had given "Love's Did Sweet Song."

In the Grand American Fantasia, introducing the popular melodies of the United States, the band proved itself to be strong in soloists.

Part II opened with Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodie No. 6, played for the first time by a military band.

It speaks well for tbe California organization that it is capable of interpreting music of this difficult modern type, instead of inflicting upon us hackneyed overtures from old Italian operas, that are only hallowed to most of us from the fact that our earliest childish recollections are identified with them, having heard them droned out upon the hurdy-gurdy.

The trombone soloist, J. K. Tobin, was much applauded for his playing of the popular ballad, "Alice, Where Art Thou," an encore being insisted upon by the audience. The soloists of the band again showed their ability In the rendering of selections from "Robin Hood." A "valse de concert" by Lambye and the "Washington Post March" by Sousa concluded a programme that was excellent, both in the selection of its numbers and the manner which they were interpreted.

The Iowa Importation.

The Iowa State Band, which played during the afternoon on the grand stand, gave its usual style of light or hackneyed selections.

The concert opened with the overture to Auber's "Massaniello," an opera which was once extremely popular, but which like many other of the former idols of the lyric stage has now been almost relegated to the museum along with other monuments of the past.

For an organization that has been crowned, metaphorically at least, with laurels at the World's Fair, and has made a triumphal progress throughout the country, it is astonishing how few of the spoils of modern music the Iowa Importation brings us, and those few are of the kind that appeals to a public of the groundling sort. Even benighted San Francisco has almost the degree of familiarity that breeds contempt with the overture to "Massaniello" and airs from the "Bohemiam Girl," who, by the way, is long past her first youth ; even the lamented Balfe himself was in the habit of alluding to her as "the old girl."

There is much new and successful music that San Francisco has not had an opportunity of hearing, and that had the Iowa band wished to live up to its character of musical missionary it might have presented to us. The overture to "I Pagliacci," for instance, which has met with such a phenomenal success, would without doubt have awakened a responsive echo in the San Francisco breast, but yesterday we were given, In addition to "Massaniello," the overture to "The Barber of Seville" and that to "Semiramide," both of which the Iowa musicians, had they been so minded, might have had the opportunity of studying from their birth.

The entire afternoon programme consisted of

Overture Massanlielo"Auber
Waltz "Espanza"Waldteufel
Ballet music from "Astorga"Abert
Selection from the comic opera "Wang"Morse.
Mazourka, "La Czarine"Ganne
Overture, "Morning, Noon and Night In Vienna"Suppe
March. "La Favorita"Gregory - Composed by Eugene J. Gregory, ex-Mayor of Sacramento. Arranged by C. W. Dalby of Iowa State band.
Patrol, "The Crack Regiment"Theo Moses
March, "Beau Ideal"Sousa

In the evening the Iowa State band rendered the following selections:

Overture, "Barber of SevilleRossini
Waltz. "Ma Belle Adoree"Roy
Descriptive. "Russian Dance"Glinka
Selection. "Bohemian Girl"Balfe
March, *La Favorita"Gregory - Composed by Eugene. J. ex-Mayor of Sacramento Arranged by C. W. Walby of Iowa State band.
Caprice, Lutzen's "Wild Hunt"Weiss
"Russian Carriage Song"Thornton
"American Patrol"Meacham
Overture, "Semiramide"Rossini

The Viennese Band.

Th« string concert given in the Kaiser Franz Joseph Hall of the Vienna Prater proved to be a decided and interesting novelty to San Francisco audiences in the way ot music.

It was Edward Strauss, one of the famous family of waltz composers, who first popularized this decidedly national style of music out of Austria. His orchestra has been a popular success wherever it has played, and the music given yesterday was of the Strauss type, although Herr Fritz Scheel's musicians varied their performance by making the second part of the programme a military concert of brass and reed instruments.

The playing of these Austrian musicians, particularly of the string band, has a very distinctive style of its own; there is something peculiarly catching in the rhythmic swing, strong contrasts in shading and unexpected pauses and changes in the tempo. Even the manner in which the conductor pivots round on his stand and gesticulates to his musicians gives verve and spirit to the perlormance. Herr Fritz does not, like Edward Strauss, indulge in a "pas seul" while a dance is being played, so that the audience bold their breath in terror lest he should waltz right off the stand, but when the conductor yesterday warmed to his work he threw an immense amount of vim into his baton.

With regard to its ensemble work and its intonation, the Vienna orchestra was beyond reproach; indeed, although its music might be denominated "catchy" by strictly classical musicians, it is nevertheless charmingly pleasing, and is sure to become extremely popular here. The concert opened with the overture to Thomas' "Mignon," followed by the prize song from Wagner's "Meistersinger," the violin solo by Concert-master Marquardt, both of which numbers were much applauded. "The Beautiful Blue Danube Waltz," by Johann Strauss, was played as none but an Austrian band can interpret it; indeed, to the majority of the audience it was a revelation. No one dreams of the possibilities of this favorite Strauss waltz Until it is played by a band from the Danübe. As an encore the band rendered a Brahms composition.

Raff's "Cavatina" was well played by Herr Grienauer. the celloist, although the charming melody always loses somewhat when it is not performed un the violin. The second 'cello solo, "Baskyrentanz," by Piatti. was also pleasingly rendered.

The greatest enthusiasm was created by the fluegelhorn solo of Herr Franz Hell, who is not an Austrian, but a performer with whom the band was recruited at New York. The song which Franz Hell played was Suppe's "Forget Me Not," and he did all but make bis fluegelhorn speak. Rarely, indeed, does one hear such exquisite expression thrown into a brass instrument. In response to a tumultuous encore and loud cries of "bravo," the player gave Baroness Rothschilds' pretty song, "Si vous n'avez rieu a me dire," likewise with great expression. His extraordinary length of breath in the final crescendo and diminuendo at the conclusion so delighted the audience that nothing short of tne whole song over again would satisfy them.

Liszt's second Hungarian Gipsy Rhapsodie was another revelation. Classical musicians again might object to the intensely vivid coloring as "tricky," but the rhapsodie in the hands of the Austrian musicians became popular, fascinating to the multitude and full of distinctive nationalism.

It is a mistake, however, to allude to the Vienna band as "Hungarian"; the Hungarian bands have other peculiarities of their own, particularly a strongly marked vibrato in everything which they perform. Their orchestral effects are also less rich.

The military concert given by the Vienna musicians showed their versatility, for they played brass and reeds, and interpreted the music with much less strongly marked individualities. Their military band is a good one, although it will probably not "catch on*' so well as their string concert. The programme was as follows:

Overture from the opera "Dichter und Bauer"Suppe
Cocoanut DanceHerman
"Innflamatus"Rossini - Cornet solo, Mr. Will E. Bates.
"The Jolly Brothers," waltzVollstaedt
Introduction and bridal chorus from third act of the opera "Lohengrin"Warner

In the evening another concert was given in the prater.

IN THE FAIR GROUNDS.

After passing through the turnstiles at the main entrance to the grounds the greater portion of the crowd seemed to have no definite plan of viewing the manifold attractions, but drifted aimlessly along after those who preceded them until some special feature presented itself and caused them to drop out of the procession for a time.

The remarkable scope of the fair seemed to be the first impression made upon the thousands of visitors, and expressions of surprise and commendation were heard at every turn.

A visitor standing in a given spot for some little time could not but be impressed by the cosmopolitan nature of the assembled multitude. People of almost every nation, of high and low degree were here present, and they were not there in the capacity of exhibitors or concessionaires, but as sightseers. And although San Francisco did splendidly in the number of citizens she turned out at the formal opening, old timers, who are supposed to know about every person of prominence In the city, expressed their surprise at the great attendance of strangers.

People from all portions of the State were present, but Southern California -— if one is to judge by the interest winch seemed to center about the building erected by that portion of the State -— was the banner section in point of numbers. All the long afternoon great crowds of people surged in and nut of the building, and the many noticeable evidences of acquaintance among the people indicated their coming from the same locality.

Many, persons, upon entering the grounds, availed themselves of the services of the official guides, whose gayly colored uniforms contrasted pleasantly with those worn by the fine body of men who will do duty as Midwinter Fair guards.

San Francisco Call, 28-January-1894
Probably the attraction that gave the greatest satisfaction to those who witnessed it was the unique '49 mining camp. Other features of the fair were better patronized, but still there were many hundreds of people who wandered over the romantic road to the camp who came away well pleased with their visit. Mark Twain, Bret Harte and other writers have made the early life of California a familiar topic in almost every American household, and those who went out to the camp yesterday were in a measure prepared for what was to be seen. The old-fashioned stagecoach, with its lusty-lunged driver and guide with his Winchester in band, which was supposed to carry passengers to the mining camp, did not seem to meet with popular favor. Many people willingly followed the ancient vehicle in its periodical trips to the camp, but they have not yet allowed their aversion to the uninviting appearance of the interior to be overbalanced by the novelty of the thing.

The dance hall and the early day saloon, where, according to a sign on the door, faro was played all night, were the chief points of interest. Inside the latter room a violin and banjo made merry music in one corner, and in an adjoining space was the "bar," while at the other end was a faro "layout" and a wheel of fortune.

Just what proportion of the visitors would be willing to acknowledge that they ever gambled it would be interesting to know, but it was a noticeable fact that a large number of those who went in dropped a piece of silver on the "red" or "black" before they came out, and that a goodly sprinkling of ladies was among the number.

The dance-hall, with its Mexican musicians and dancers, caught nearly all the crowd also, and the occasional sharp crack of a revolver indicated the supposed tragic death of some "tenderfoot" on the inside who had committed some breach of mining camp etiquette and had been summarily filled with lead for his temerity. Around the entrance to the scenic railroad, where you were assured of a three quarter-mile ride over hills and through tunnels, a big crowd patiently awaited their turns to get into the cars. Every mother's son (and daughter, too) of them seemed to think that it was his or her bounden duty to yell or scream every time the cars they were in went down one of tbe inclines at rapid speed.

Strawberry Hill was the focus of many eyes upon the grounds during the early hours of the afternoon, and a visitor having once looked thereon was immediately seized with a desire to ascend its precipitous sides and look down upon the scene below. Viewed from the grounds, the hill presented a pretty sight. Upon the observatory a great crowd was visible at all hours of the day, while the ground below it and along the road which winds its way from the base to the summit of the bill, a perfect mass of people was packed. Above the foliage of the trees, looking up from the grounds, only the heads and shoulders of the people on the hill were to be seen, the whole making a pretty picture, outlined as it was against the green background.

The camera fiend was on the ground in large number. No restriction was placed upon his or her operations, and they took snap-shots at about every imaginable object, animate and inanimate, within the surrounding fence. One of them got the "Man Friday" to pose in various positions with his wheelbarrow, at 25 cents a pose, and after he got through with his amateur efforts, discovered that "Friday" was selling his photos at 10 cents each. "Friday" is an Individual who trundled a wheelbarrow all the way from Council Bluffs to this city, being 155 days en route. His feet are inclosed in untanned pieces of cowhide, a tattered straw hat surmounts his head, and he bears a general and impressive appearance of being on the downgrade of a rapid decline.

The Firth wheel also seemed to be a favorite point of visitation with the crowd. "My!" said one 'of the young ladles who were escorted by a clerical looking young fellow of about 25, "what if the machinery of the thing should stop and leave us away up here!" "Oh, Will would get us out," responded the other, and Will's face assumed a color of fiery red.

'Men, women and children trooped through the Mechanical Arts building without stopping long in the interior. The condition of the machinery and articles for display is so unsatisfactory that few cared to linger longer than was necessary to obtain a casual view of its contents.

During the progress of the opening exercises at the grand stand an excellent illustration of the efficiency of the Midwinter Fair Guards and the medical force was given. A sudden concentration of the people to a spot on the outer edge of the crowd led to the discovery that a lady was ill. It was but a few minutes until the guards had quietly removed her from the crowd, a physician had applied restoratives and an ambulance had taken her to the receiving hospital. It was all done so quietly and so quickly that those who witnessed the scene were unanimously favorable in their expressions of commendation.

Many of those who attended the opening exercises yesterday were doubtless also at the World's Fair and have learned by sad experience that it is impossible to see all that is to be seen in one day. The writer heard one lady remark: "1 walk half an hour and then rest fifteen minutes"." The idea seemed to be not only original but worthy of being adopted by others.

The remainder of the concessionaires bad no reason to complain of the patronage given them yesterday. The crowd seemed determined to see everything, and what it cost was a secondary consideration.

THE RETURN HOME.

There was considerable irregularity noticeable in the departures from the fairgrounds during the afternoon. For one thing there was no actual termination to the day's proceedings, as the fun was kept up from the very pressing of the button that set the gigantic machinery in motion up to the near approach of another day. Again, a considerable number of the visitors desired to test the quality of the dishes set at the various restaurants. However, by 4 o'clock in the afternoon a good many had seen enough, for the time being. A good many, in yesterday's acceptance of the term, did not mean fifty or a hundred, but some thousands. The gradual filtering of patrons that took place from the gates aggregated what would have been a formidable assemblage at a political gathering. Consequently, there was a general hurry-scurry, helter-skelter for the cars. The principles of etiquette noticeable in the California race are, by force of circumstances, sometimes driven to the wall, and in the scrimmage of yesterday the fair one had to take her chance with the rest. It is not a pleasant spectacle to see ladies standing while men sit.

Golden Gate avenue is the one street in San Francisco that is by nature and art specially adapted for chariot-racing. To see team after team of all sorts and conditions tearing down that thoroughfare to its junction on Market street is a sufficiently usual as well as exhilarating sight on any sun-given Sunday. But yesterday afternoon, while the light lasted, was particularly favored in this impromptu representation of an old Roman pastime. Hacks, carts, carriages, buggies, all sorts of vehicles, down they came in confused profusion.

At night, of course, it was even worse. There was very little chance for the ordinary visitor to get out of the grounds in a stated limit of time, not to mention to obtain rest and repose on a dummy for his toboggan slide into the city. But all is well that ends well, and, considering all things, there was less confusion about the transport to and fro yesterday than has been noticed on former occasions at many a baseball match.

In the end everybody returned from the fair tired out, but with inward satisfaction in having participated in a glorious day's pleasure. But of all the people who visited the fair none, perhaps, had less difficulty in regard to their means of transport than those who went up in the captive balloon and viewed the fair from the corner of Market and Eighth streets. If they feared the ascent, that once accomplished the descent was easy, and one balloon passenger likened his visit to the fair to the man in Mark Twain's work, who "ascended Mont Blanc by telescope, not forgetting to pay the man in advance."

THE PYROTECHNICS.

Thousands returned to their homes yesterday at the fall of evening, but thousands more remained within the grounds, and still thousands went from the town, from the suburbs, from everywhere to the fairgrounds to swell the multitude and make the evening no whit less imposing than the day. Probably 40,000 people crowded within the gates. The brilliance of the electric lights scattered diffusely through the grounds bid them welcome, as it were, and offered a safe guide to all the pleasures and retreats.

The night was like the day, only more beautiful, if that could be. The masses of people swarmed about within from building to building, from walk to walk, from exhibit to exhibit, freely and comfortably. The light was good and sufficient both out-of-doors and in the buildings; and the sight from the entrance down the grand court was all-pleasant to behold.

Without the gates, unfortunately, someone had neglected to provide for illumination. The walks from the terminus of the Geary and McAllister street car lines to the entrance to the fair grounds were left in utter darkness, and the eager crowds had difficulty in making their way. But within the gates all was different.

The ruddy uniforms of the catalogue boys shone brilliantly in the blaze of light from the Manufactures building. The Egyptian Palace of Fine Arts stood colored in the deep yellow, of pyramidal antiquity, the one permanent exhibit of the fair. The richly embossed and colored front of the Liberal Arts building, the tinted spires and minarets of the Administration building in the distance, the yet unfinished and therefore the more lighted dome of the Mechanical Arts structure, all stood forth in perfect distinctness.

Down the Midway Plaisance a hundred minor lights from a quarter of that number of buildings made traveling easy and sojourn alluring. For an hour and a half before the pyrotechnic display took place all the resorts of the Plaisance were In full operation, and were attracting hundreds of visitors to the shows which they had to offer.

At 7 o'clock the crowds began to move toward the grand stand. Up to that time there had seemed to be many in the grounds. The walks had been filled, the Plaisance crowded, each individual building holding a great concourse within itself. But when out of every door, and in from every side walk to the central avenue leading to the grand stand the many came en masse, it was seen what an enormous assemblage was within the grounds.

The main stream came from the gates and the Manufactures building. Small groups of visitors left the chocolate-houses and cafes and swung into the crowd as it passed. The Mechanical, Arts building let forth its host of inhabitants, and the stream moved on toward the- Midway. The dark and dusky entrance to the Haway (Hawaii - JT); the burning crater of the K'lauea volcano drew only here and there a stranger. The mass were bound toward the scene of the fireworks, intent only upon witnessing the culminating glory of opening day. On the left of the road glared the red and lurid eyes of the Dante's Inferno monster; in the distance the Firth wheel rolled its gaunt and lean arms in the darkness, but the people were either forsaking or neglecting them. On the right the scenic railway with its thrilling rush and rumble seemed to catch within its toils hundreds of passers-by; but the ride was short and in keeping with the spirit of the hour.

The passengers became inspired with the passion for noise and hurrah. Every carload bore a shouting crew. The voices filled the night air; the shrill steam whistle took up the sound and carried it long and loud, and away in the far valleys the deep moan of the locomotive responded. Every man, woman and child on the walks about seemed to join voice to the increasing din. The men who stood in front of the concessions proclaiming the attractions within raised their voices even beyond their usual height. Elation and the impulse of exaggeration seemed to seize upon everybody. From the western end of the Midway, from the '49 camp and the Esquimaux (Eskimo - JT) village and the ostrich farm the dozens of visitors came rushing to join the enthusiastic multitude.

The bulk of them had now got well started down the road to the scene of the fireworks. A few had strayed into the crystal maze and become lost. In the confusion of a hundred reflections of themselves on the deceptive mirrors. Just at the hour when the entire length of the road was beginning to be filled with the great numbers of moving people, the electric circuit failed, the lights went out, and at 7:30 at night at least 3000 of mankind were left in darkness. It was as if the course of life had been turned back twenty years and things had become as they were before man "harnessed the lightning," when the curfew sent men to bed with the beasts of the field. But this precipitate recurrence to the memories of old endured only a few minutes. The lightning was quickly reharnessed, the lamps set going and the multitude released from what might have been a serious embarrassment.

By 7:30 the greater part of the people had reached the plains before the fireworks. A price of 50 cents had been placed on the seats in the grand stand and all but a few persons were obliged to stand. Some clever ones found loose timbers, with which they constructed temporary seats. Others built bonfires here and there to ward away the little cold of the evening. From above, the great crowd resembled nothing so much as the concourse at the opening of Oklahoma Territory. The groups about the bonfires, the men driving stakes here and there for seats like men locating town lots, the hum and suppressed excitement of the occasion, the unusual numbers present -— only there was this difference: it was the occasion of the dedication of a great exposition, where all interests were alike, where there was no contention of citizen against citizen, where everybody was awaiting the one thing: the signal for the first rocket, when a mighty shout was to go up, the bands to play, the set pieces to discharge and opening day to close in a flash of glory.

The thunder and blaze of fireworks presented to the multitude a most brilliant climax for the glorious midwinter day. And such fireworks as they were! For grandeur and great variety they had not been equaled in San Francisco, and they were admirably sustained, from the grand salute of bombs until the golden sheen of Niagara was eclipsed by the blackness of the night. It was not a display of one rocket after another, and then an occasional set piece by way of variety. Nothing of the sort, but a lavish exhibition of pyrotechnic wealth in various forms all through. Some rockets were really wonderful creations in fiery elements, bombs were terrible in their strength and explosions and beauty was always present in golden showers, graceful falling figures and rich colorings against the sky.

There was a perfect background in the high hill south of Golden Gate Park, though frequently the rockets and bombs shot far above the summit and unfolded their glories in the darkened azure. Then the very stars seemed dimmed and all eyes gazed enraptured on the new lights that hung awhile far up above. Another rocket, another mighty bomb, and still another reached successively the same height, and so a brilliant glow light up the heavens. Meanwhile exhibition pieces were ablaze below, funny whistling rockets, geysers or volcanoes filled the lower space.

Soon after 8 o'clock the electric lights in the recreation grounds were dimmed and presently a salute of forty-four "reporting" bombshells, one for each State in the Union, was fired. The reports resembled firing of heavy artillery and helped to send the exhibition off with a good deal of enthusiasm and pomp. No sooner had the last State been thus saluted than the wide area with its vast concourse of people was brightly illuminated with colored fires for five minutes. The coloring was greeted with cheers as different pleasing contrasts were presented in succession. Darkness had scarcely fallen upon the scene before a gorgeous framework bearing the word "Welcome" in pink letters was burning. This piece had a blue frame and a brilliant sun case with an effect fifty feet across. Presently what the fireworks men called a union battery was fired. This was a marvelous display of colored fires fringed with golden sparks that were vomited from the earth, it seemed without end. The battery was 100 feet long and was supplied by 250 Roman candles, that emitted balls of red, white and blue in all directions, as well as great volumes of brilliant sparks. As the lights were fading, a roar of bombs startled the spectators.

The hidden monsters, breaking loose their simple bonds, shook the earth and caused the air to vibrate. Then, as they flew upward, leaving a trail of fire like the tail of some distant comet, San Franciscans wondered when they would stop. Never such height was reached by rocket in this city. Half a dozen at once were fired repeatedly. They would burst at a great height with beautiful effect. One rocket would explode a shower of golden rain, only to be eclipsed by another with purple and yellow balls, a third with green and golden globes, a fourth with pure white globules, that appeared like so many electric arc lamps suspended in midair. Tbe effect of these combinations drooping slowly toward the ground was extremely pretty.

Rockets were sent up in couples and more simultaneously. Though there was a similarity between many of them they were all excellent in their way, and pleased everybody present. The showers of gold that burst repeatedly in the sky were beautiful displays of soft yellow sparks spreading over a large space and falling gracefully in all manner of shapes, though generally in tongues of fire. Alternating with them were rockets and bombs that gave out myriad stars and globes of yellow, red, blue, green and purple, always with regard for exquisite harmony of color and combination one with the other. The ninth piece was a portrait of M. H. de Young, with the inscription "Our. Director-General" in large letters. While the outlines were given in colored fires a volcano of fire and gorgeous balls sprang from the ground in front and a halo of the same fiery constituents came in a shower from the rear, falling over the picture and making a framework for it.

A cluster of dragon rockets was sent up. They plowed their sinuous way through the air like a snake performing all the curves of a helix and with pretty effect. The next novelty was a battery of funny whistling Jack mines, consisting of brilliant showers of colored stars at a height of 100 feet, followed by loud explosions overhead, and afterward the air was filled with gyrating figures that whistled and gleamed.

An exhibition-piece, the peacock's tail, was next presented, and then there was a magnificent flight of jeweled rockets, saucissons, and golden snakes, which succeeded in keeping up a pretty lively time. One very lovely rocket that contained thousands of emerald balls burst far up and evoked applause as the delicate hue fell upon the people. After it there were red and yellow visions and again showers of stars.

Some effective displays were made with parachute rockets. When these exploded high up a string of many-colored balls of fire appeared. They swung around in the breeze and kept aloft many minutes, during which time the balls changed color frequently, and finally pyrotechnic displays on a small scale were given under each parachute.

Several set pieces were shown and at intervals the best features were presented in eruptions of sparks and volcanoes. The grand finale, "Niagara," was 100 feet long and 50 feet high. Though very simple in design, consisting merely of a long row of Roman candles that emitted sparks in one direction, so as to represent a cascade of fire, this piece was most impressive. The fireworks exhibition lasted a little over two hours.

Notes of the Day.

The Firth wheel did a large business. Up to 7 o'clock it carried 5486 people, and after that hour several hundred more took advantage of the elevated outlook to view the fireworks from its cars.

The Hawaiian village entertained 4142 people, while no less than 3442 visited Kilauea, the burning volcano.

TO-DAY'S MUSIC.

The programme to be rendered by the Midwinter Exposition band at the grand stand, near the Administration building, this morning at 10 o'clock is as follows:


March, "State Militia Review"G. Koppitz - From the pen of a member of the Exposition Band.
Grand over"Dansa Chiliena"Desormes
(b) Hungarian czardasHanselman
Popular selection, "Beggar Students"Millocker - Solos tor different Instruments.
'Popular Patrol"arranged by Casassa

Part ii.

Grand overture, "Rienzi"R. Wagner
Solo for euphonium. "Longing for Home," thema and variationsHartman - L. Klatz, California euphonium virtuoso.
Grand operatic selection, "Faust"Gounod Solos for clarionet, J. Morel J. Keogb ; euphonium, L. Klatz; trombone, F. K. Tobin; cornet, Hugo Schmidt.
Morceau characteristiqueSherman
Great Republic marchThiele

Introducing the national airs of America in form of march.

The following is the programme to be rendered by tbe Midwinter Fair Band in the Manufactures and Liberal Arts building this afternoon at 2 o'clock:

PART i.


"Midwinter Exposition March" (by request)H. J. Stewart
Grand overture, "Maritana"Wallace
"Abscheid"Kappey
Popular selection, "La Clgale"Caryll - Introducing tbe gems of this favorite opera (first time).
"Patrol"Meacham - Introducing the national airs of America.

PART ii.

Overture, "Zanetta"Auber
Solo for clarionet, "La sonuambula"Cavallini - Senor Santobanoz
Operatic selection. "Bluff King Hal"H. J. Stewart - Solos for the principals of the band, producing the gems of tbls popular work.
Concert waltz, "Love's Old Sweet song"Bucalossi
The popular "Cadet March" (by special request)




2 comments:

nick kibre said...

125 years ago today, right?

Anyway, thanks for posting this. I'm too busy to read it all now--I'll take another look tomorrow at work :)

When the new garage was being built between the Academy of Sciences and the De Young, we took a walk nearby, climbed a big hill of excavated dirt, and came across pieces of old plaster. Maybe left over from the temporary buildings of the Midwinter's Fair?

Another detail that might interest you is that the SP built a temporary spur through what is now the Sunset to deliver supplies for the fair. It was torn out soon after because the City really didn't want tracks running through the park.

Joe Thompson said...

Hi Nick. 125 years ago on the 27th. It was a Saturday. That must have been interesting to see excavation at the new DeYoung. I have a map from the LA Herald that I will post. It shows the tracks in the park.